Sunday, 21 December 2014

Masculinity Power demonstration: A culture of RAPE in Nepal

I just wonder who is responsible and to blame for inhumane barbaric criminal hilarious action like "RAPE" which even animals hardly do to their females to demonstrate their masculinity Penis Power. I completely agree with statement made by the guardian columnist, Jill Filipovic who said "Rape is about POWER, NOT SEX".  

Although daughters are considered as a Goddess "Laxmi" in Nepali society wonder WHY own father, grandfather, brothers and relatives rape own daughters, granddaughters, sisters, niece and relatives. This is really serious and very unsafe situation in Nepalese society which has been taking place since ancient time till now. But at present due to mass media booming such incidents have been started to report which otherwise were forbidden by security forces as well government to bring out. Thus it was usually kept secret and hidden within a family circle.

Rural, illiterate, poor and uncivilised men if have done such criminal act of raping to own daughters, granddaughters, sisters, niece and relatives in somehow it is understandable because we can consider such people as barbaric, fool, unwise, and animal minded. However, it happening among so-called literate, educated and civilised men world so it is completely indigestible and unacceptable.

Like every year we read and hear such news from Nepal about rape, this year also a 19-year old girl from Kavre district has been reported being raped by own father aged 47 Prakash KC and her grandfather, Indra Bahadur KC aged 72 since she was 13-year old (1). He has been jailed only for 10 year and her grandfather killed himself on August 25. 

Similarly, another girl 13-year old girl has been reported being raped by own father and brother. Last year (2013), a journalist, Ramesh Pokharel from Gauradaha, Jhapa district, who is affiliated with the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified MarxistLeninist), also known as CPN–UML  had raped his own juvenile daughter (2). Luckily this year, the District Court Jhapa, Chief Judge, Ramesh Kumar Khattri, has convicted him with 20 years of imprisonment under the incest and rape case on December 14.

In 2011 in the eastern part of Nepal Sankhasawa district, 21-year old Buddhist Nun, Samita Tamang (named changed) from Bhojpur district was gang raped by bus drivers and helpers. Similarly, in the far west Nepal 16-year old Pooja Bohora (named changed) has been reported gang raped in March 2012 while she was attending her School Leaving Certificate exams in her home district, Baitadi (3). After recovery she said she was drugged and raped by local bookshoper Sagar Bhatta and Amar Awasti of Baitadi. Every day, month and year is not exceptional in hearing such criminal action from penis rule society mindset who can't think differently other than sexual assault to minors, innocent and ignorant girls and women. This year on May, three men including 14-year old boy namely Laxman Limbu, 20, Nat Bahadur Limbu, 24, and a 14 year old teenager of Letang, Morang district raped a married woman of the same village 36-year old while she was returning home from local Bazaar in the evening time (4). Unfortunately they have been convicted only 10 years by Morgan district court on December. Likewise, the Supreme Court has convicted Yadav Ghimire, a section officer at the Nepal Telecommunication Authority, in a rape case. 

There was another gang raped to 14-year old girl from dalit community originally from Chitwan district (5). She was raped by Madan Khadka and other men for a month keeping her locked in a room who was about to be sold to a brothel in the Tibetan town of Khasa in China after she was sexually exploited for a month, was rescued a week ago from Dadhikot- 8 of Bhaktapur district by the police and Raksha Nepal, a non-governmental organization that works for the welfare of sexually exploited women. 

Another case this year in October 10-year daughter has been reported raped by own father and brother and her mother is away from home working in Kuwait (6).

These are just some representative cases and incidents of rapist culture of Nepalese manuism ideology driven mindset society which I feel nauseated even to talk and report because we people of Nepal are promoting culture of rape which we hardly see in a civilised world.

"Rapists don't rape because they can't "get" sex elsewhere. Rapists don't rape because they're uncontrollably turned on by the sight of some cleavage, or a midriff, or red lipstick, or an ankle. They rape because they're misogynist sadists, and they flourish in places where misogyny is justified as tradition and maleness comes with a presumption of violence.' (7)"
- Jill Filipovic, Columnist, The Guardian


1. Father and grandfather raped won daughter and granddaughter since aged 13 in Kavre district
2.  Ramesh Pokharel raped own daughter in Jhapa district last year
3. Gang raped Pooja Bohora, Baitadi
4. Gang raped a married woman aged 36 in Letang, Morang district 
5. Gang raped 14-year old dalit girl
6. Father and brother raped 10-year daughter
7. Rapist is about POWER not SEX. by Jill Filipovic

Thursday, 18 December 2014

Genocide of Buddhism in ancient India

In India among scholars interesting discussion takes place regarding religions, mainly Brahmanism and Buddhism because both religions were founded in Indian soil. BUT one vanished and another flourished so everyone wonder WHY!!

Very interesting article titled "Hinduism and Talibanism" had written by Mukundan C. Menon, who was one of the most prominent human-rights activists in India.

It starts with the question "Which is more deplorable: destruction of Buddhism in its own birth place in ancient India by Hindus, or of Buddha statues by present day Islamic Talibans in Afghanistan?"

Two well known academicians of Kerala - Prof KM Bahauddin, former pro-vice chancellor of Aligarh Muslim and Osmania universities, and Dr MS Jayaprakash, professor of history at Kollam - throw some deep insights into the dark history of India when Buddhism was systematically eliminated by Brahminical forces who control Hinduism, then and now.

Says Jayaprakash: ‘The ruthless demolition of Buddha statues by Taliban has courted severe criticism from different quarters of the world. Surprisingly, the BJP-led Indian Government, supported by all Hindutva forces, also condemned the Taliban action. It is a paradox that the forerunners of the present Hindutva forces in India had wantonly destroyed not only Buddhist statues but also killed Buddhists in India. Therefore, any impartial student of history would unequivocally say that these Hindutva forces have no moral right to criticize Taliban now.’

He elaborates: ‘Hundreds of Buddhist statues, stupas and viharas have been destroyed in India between 830 and 966 AD in the name of Hindu revivalism. Both literary and archaeological sources within and outside India speak volumes about the havoc done to Buddhism by Hindu fanatics. Spiritual leaders like Sankaracharya and many Hindu kings and rulers took pride in demolishing Buddhist images aiming at the total eradication of Buddhist culture. Today, their descendants destroyed the Babri Masjid and also published the list of mosques to be targeted in future. It is with this sin of pride that they presently condemn Taliban.’

Prof. Bahauddin elaborates the selfish compulsions of Brahminism to wipe-out Buddhism: ‘Buddhism tried to create a dynamic society in ancient India. Jainism also contributed its share. As Buddhism spread, iron ploughs and implement were used for development of agriculture. As a result, new areas were cultivated and agricultural productivity increased, apart from developing trade centres and road links. Subsistence-level economy changed to a surplus economy with grain storage facilities, exchange of goods, trade and development of bureaucratic administration. This also created social change - from elans consisting several families to tribes consisting several elans of similar socio-economic conditions. The emphasis of Brahmins, on the other hand, was for receiving and giving alms and not on production of goods. Those who give and receive alms were close to Gods and those who produce were considered as inferior. According to Manusmriti, a Sudra should not have wealth of his own. In case he has any, a Brahmin as his master can take it over without any hesitation. ‘Rigveda’ goes a step further to kill those who do not give ‘danam’ to the Brahmins. In other words, someone has to produce goods so that others can give ‘danam’ to the recipient Brahmins. It was against this system of 'downgrading those who produce' that Buddhism came into being.’

Recalls Dr. Jayaprakash: ‘The Hindu ruler Pushyamitra Sunga had destroyed 84,000 Buddhist stupas which were built by Emperor Ashoka. This was followed by the demolition of Buddhist centres in Magadha. Thousands of Buddhist saints were killed mercilessly. King Jalaluka destroyed the Buddha viharas within his jurisdiction on the ground that chanting of hymns by Buddhists disturbed his sleep! In Kashmir, King Kinnara demolished thousands of viharas and captured the Buddhist villages to please Brahmins. A large number of Buddha viharas were usurped by Brahmins and converted into Hindu temples where entry of ‘untouchables’ was prohibited. Notably, Buddhist places were regularized as Hindu temples by writing Puranas, which were invented myths or pseudo history. The important temples at Tirupathi, Aihole, Undavalli, Ellora, Bengal, Puri, Badarinath, Mathura, Ayodhya, Sringeri, Bodhigaya, Saranath, Delhi, Nalanda, Gudimallam, Nagarjunakonda, Srisailam and Sabarimala are some of the striking examples of Brahminical usurpation of Buddhist centres.’

Detailing the divergence in both orientation and essence between Buddhism and Hinduism, Prof. Bahauddin says: ‘Equality, compassion, non-violence, utilization of human abilities for general welfare, etc. were the cardinal principles of Buddhism. According to ‘Sathpatha Brahmanam (22-6, 3-4-14), on the other hand, the whole universe is controlled by God, God is controlled by Mantram and Mantram is with Brahmins and, therefore, Brahmins are God (on earth). They used Mantram and Sapam to instil fear in the people to obey them, while Buddhism encouraged people to observe visible facts, to apply reason to get out of fear. Buddhism also encouraged people to do good things, besides guiding Kings to look after the people's welfare. Buddhism considers the general welfare of the people, while Brahminism considers that the whole world was created for them all along. And, there is bound to be conflict between these two opposite ways of thinking.’ According to Dr Jayaprakash, Sakaracharya had played ‘a demon's role’ in destruction of Buddhist statues and monuments at Nagarjunakonda (in present-day Andhra Pradesh). ‘A. N. Longhurst, who conducted excavations at Nagarjunakonda, had recorded this in his invaluable book, Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India No. 54, The Buddhist Antiquities of Nagarjunakonda (Delhi, 1938, p. 6). The ruthless manner in which all the buildings at Nagarjunakonda have been destroyed is simply appalling and cannot represent the work of treasure-seekers alone since so many pillars, statues, and sculptures have been wantonly smashed to pieces. Local tradition relates that the great Hindu philosopher and teacher, Sankaracharya, came to Nagarjunakonda with a host of followers and destroyed the Buddhist monuments. The cultivated lands on which ruined buildings stand represent a religious grant made to Sankaracharya.’ Quoting Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Prof. Bahauddin says that the conflict against Brahmin supremacy had, in fact, started before Buddhist period, between Vasishta Muni, a Brahmin, and Viswamitra, a non-Brahmin. ‘The dispute was about the learning of ‘Vedas’, the right to conduct religious ceremony, to receive gifts, and to perform coronation of King. Vasishta Muni insisted that these were the exclusive privileges of Brahmins, while Viswamitra was opposed to such exclusive rights. This dispute lasted for long period, and even Kings joined in it (Writings and Speeches of Dr. Ambedkar, vol. 7, p. 148-155. It was won by Brahmins.’ Prof. Bahauddin lists the different stages of Brahmin hostility against Buddhism: ‘1) 483-273 BC: The period after Buddha's death upto Ashoka's rule when attempts were made to include Brahminical ideas in Buddhist ideology. 2) 273-200 BC: When Buddhism spread all over India and became a world religion. 3) 200 BC-500 AD: The period when all possible efforts were made to disintegrate Buddhism from within by adulterating Buddhist teachings with Brahminical ideas and also through physical annihilation from outside. As a result, Buddhism divided itself into 18 sects, of which Hinayana and Mahayana were prominent ones. 4) 500-700 AD: Brahminism gained supremacy in North India and efforts began to drive out Buddhism and Jainism from South India. 5) 700-1100 AD: Brahminism gained supremacy in South India and, with added vigour, it moved again to North India to obtain complete supremacy over Buddhism and Jainism. 6) 1100-1400 AD: Buddhism and Jainism were destroyed from the remaining Southern States of Karnataka and Kerala and, thus, total supremacy of Brahminism all over India was achieved.’ Adds Dr. Jayaprakash: ‘Within Kerala, Sankaracharya and his close associate Kumarila Bhatta, an avowed foe of Buddhism, organized a religious crusade against Buddhists. A vivid description of Sankaracharya's pleasure of seeing people of non-Brahminic faith being burnt to death is available in ‘Sankara Digvijaya’. Kumarila instigated King Suddhanvan of Ujjain to exterminate Buddhists. The ‘Mricchakatika’ of Sudraka describes how the King's brother-in-law in Ujjain inhumanly tortured the Buddhist monks, by using them as bullocks by inserting a string through their nose and yoking them to the cart! The ‘Keralolpathi’ documents the extermination of Buddhism from Kerala by Kumarila. About the activities of Sankaracharya, even Vivekananda had observed: ‘And, such was the heart of Sankara that he burnt to death lots of Buddhist monks by defeating them in argument. What can you call such action on Sankara's part except fanaticism’ (Complete works of Swami Vivekananda, Vol. III, p. 118, Calcutta, 1997).’ According to Dr. Jayaprakash, there are hundreds of places in Kerala having names ‘palli’ either affixed or suffixed with them. ‘Karunagapalli, Karthikapalli, Pallickal, Pallippuram, Edappally, etc. are some examples of these places. The term ‘palli’ means a Buddha vihara. Notably, Kerala had 1200 years of Buddhist tradition. Earlier, the schools in Malayalam were called as ‘Ezhuthupalli’ or ‘Pallikoodam’. It is also worth noticing that the Christians and Muslims in Kerala use the term ‘palli’ to denote their church and mosque alike. These ‘pallies’ or viharas had been ruthlessly demolished by the Hindu forces under the leadership of Sankaracharya and Kumarila. They could exterminate 1200 years of Buddhist tradition and converted Kerala into a Brahminical state based on the ‘Chaturvarna’ system. Original inhabitants of Kerala, like the Ezhavas, Pulayas, etc., were crushed under the weight of casteism. Many a viharas was transformed into temples and majority of people were prevented from entering temples under the pretext of caste pollution. It can also be noted that the name ‘Kerala’ is the Sanskritised Aryan version of the Dravidian and Buddhist term ‘Cherala’. The Parasurama legend is nothing but an invented myth for regularizing the Brahminical ‘Kerala’ hiding its glorious Buddhist traditions.’ Jainism, too, met with the same fate in South India. Prof. Bahauddin elaborates: ‘Very little information is available about growth of Jainism in South India during 300-400 AD. The Jain book, ‘Digambara Darsana’, recounts the starting of a Sangham at Madurai in 470 AD and Jainism became widespread and strong during 500-600 AD (Kumaraswamy Iyengar, ‘Studies in South Indian Jainism’, p. 51-58)….. The Jains used to instal the images of their saints in their religious places, a practice which was followed by Brahmins. Hindu temples appeared all over Tamilnadu probably after converting the Jain religious places. The idols of 63 Brahmin Sanyasis, who led destruction of Jainism, still adorn the walls of some Hindu temples in Tamilnadu. The remains of destroyed Jain idols, their abandoned religious and living places are scattered all over Tamilnadu to narrate their story. Frescos depicting the kings of Jains could be seen on the walls near the Golden Tank at Madurai Meenakshi Temple where, of the total 12 annual festivals, five depict the killing of Jains according to Kumaraswamy Iyengar (p. 78-79).’ According to Dr. Jayaprakash, a number of Buddha statues have been discovered at places like Ambalapuzha, Karunagapalli, Pallickal, Bharanikkavu, Mavelikara and Neelamperur in Kerala. ‘They are either in the form of smashed pieces or thrown away from viharas. Lord Ayyappa of Sabarimala and Lord Padmanabha at Thiruvananthapuram are the proxy images of Buddha being worshipped as Vishnu. Hundreds of Buddhists were killed on the banks of Aluva river. The term ‘Aluva’ was derived from ‘Alawai’ which means ‘Trisul’, a weapon used by Hindu fanatics to stab Buddhists. Similarly, on the banks of the Vaigai river in Tamilnadu, thousands of Buddhists were killed by the Vaishnava Saint, Sambanthar. Thevaram, a Tamil book, documents this brutal extermination of Buddhism.’ Prof. Bahauddin recalls the strong reasons to believe that a large section of Jains had embraced Islam: ‘The spread of Islam in Tamilnadu can be considered in three or four stages. Islam spread in Kerala and Tamilnadu when Jainism was under pressure (650-750 AD). The new religion was received without resistance…. Since Islam considers every human being with equality Jainism and Buddhism had no conflict with it. When Muhammad ibn Al-Qasim attacked Sindh, the Buddhists supported him because they were facing annihilation at that time. A similar situation was prevailing in South India during 650-750 AD…. Muslims in Tamilnadu are called Anchuvanthar, Labba (teacher), Rauthar, Marakar (sailor) or Jonakan (Yavankan). The Anchuvanam is the guild of traders and groups of artisans. The Muslim mohallas of ‘Anchuvan Vamsagar’, ‘Anchuvanathar’, etc. are scattered all over Tamilnadu and seem to be the en bloc conversion of Jain guilds engaged in different activities, especially weaving. Those who ran away from Tamilnadu settled down in Sravanabalagola and Gomatheswaram in Karnataka. And, those who could not leave due to their economic interests converted to Islam. If we analyze the body structure, food, language, dress, ornaments, customs and habits of Anchuvanthar, it could be see that those are a continuation of Jain way of living and customs. Till recently, the weavers in such Muslim mohallas will not eat at noon or night, and take only one meal before dusk. This was a continuation of Jain habits. There is a separate place in such villages called ‘Odukkam’ where Jain Munist used to sit in prayer. On the last Wednesday of the month called ‘Odukkathae’ Wednesday, the Muslims gather together to sing religious songs, which is also a Jain tradition. When religious functions like Maulood, Rathif, etc. are organized in the house, a white cloth with lotus symbol on it called ‘Mekett’ is tied, which resembles the ‘Asmanagiri’ of the Jains…. The architecture of Muslim stone mosques are completely of Jain architecture. The pillars of earlier mosques have practically no difference with the Jain temple pillars. The close relationship between traders and weavers had probably cemented by conversion to Islam. During 950-1200 AD, there were large number of Sufis, Fakirs, wandering poets, singing minstrels, etc. among Muslims all over Tamilnadu. Nadirshah with 500 disciples settled down in ‘Trichinopoly’ during 1000 AD. Aliyar Shah and his disciples made Madurai as their centre. Baba Fakhruddin travelled all over Tamilnadu. Nagur became another Sufi centre. The Muslim religious literature of Tamilnadu of that period was least different from those created by Jains and Hindus during the ‘Bhakti’ movement.’ Prof. Bahauddin recounts the spread of Jainism and Buddhism in Kerala, thus: ‘Jainism spread in North Kerala around 200 BC. The Jain architectural remains in Canara and Malabar are not available anywhere else in South of Nepal. While Jainism entered North Kerala via Mangalore, Salem, Coimbatore and Wayanad, it entered Southern Kerala from Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Nagercoil, Chitharal, etc. The hill near Anamala, which was an important Jain centre, is still called ‘Jain Durgam’. The close-by Kurumala was also a Jain centre. From Anamala through Munnar, Devikulam, Kothamangalam, Perumbavoor, etc. they reached Neryamangalam, Kothamangalam, Perumbavoor and other places. The ‘Kallil Kshetram’ in Perumbavoor is an important Jain monument as also the ‘Jainmedu’ in Vadakethara village of Palakkad district. Kerala's cave temples at Chitharal, Kallil, Trikur, Erunilamkode (Thrissur district) and Thiruveghapuram (Palakkad district) were constructed during the period of Jain King Mahendra Verman-I (610-640 AD). Temple records of Rameswaram, Sucheendram, Poothadi (Wayanad), Keenalur (Kozhicode) , etc. show that they were part of ‘Kunavai Koottam’ during 10-11th centuries. ‘Koottam’ is the place of living for Jain Sanyasis. Temple records show that all these present-day Hindu temples were Jain religious places till 11th century. Place names with Kallu, Poothan, Aathan, Kotha, Palli, Ambalam, etc. were all Jain centres. Spread all over Kerala, names of these places show that Buddhism and Jainism were widespread. The famous Kalpathi in Palakkad district was a Buddhist-Jain centre. The ‘Ratholsavam’ there is akin to the ‘Kettukazhcha’ of Buddhists. The present Bhagavati temples were also Jain temples. The group, ‘Adikal’, had a prominent position among Jains who became ‘Pisharadi’ after absorption of Jainism in Hinduism.’ ‘Similarly, the Buddhist stoopa at Kodungallore, located in Methala village South-East of Thrikanamathilakam, is an important Buddhist ruin in Kerala…. Mahismathi was the capital of Chera King Satyaputran, which shows the relationship of Chera country (Kerala) with Buddhism. There is a reference in ‘Manimekhala’ about a Buddhist Chaityam in Kerala. While Vadakkumnatha Temple at Thrissur and Kurumba Temple at Kodungallore were Buddhist temples, Buddha statues were discovered from Kollam, Alappuzha, Mavelikara, Pallikkal, Karumadi and other places…. Treating mental patients in Thiruvadi temple and leprosy patients in Thakazhi temple shows that they were Buddhist temples since these kind of humanitarian services were not rendered out from Hindu temples…. By 900 AD Buddhism and Jainism were almost wiped out from Tamilnadu. The second settlement wave of Brahmins in Kerala during 900 AD was with Pandyan Kings' support. Karnataka and Kerala were the only two states where Buddhism and Jainism were still surviving and the second immigration of Brahmins might have been for driving out these two religions from the remaining places.’ Prof. Bahauddin recalls: ‘Very few people know that Buddhism and Jainism were the prominent religions of Kerala till 1200 AD. I was also under the impression that Hinduism was in Kerala from the very beginning. When facts were pieced together, a different picture emerged. Only from the end of 1800 AD the evidence became available about Buddha, Buddhism, Ashoka, etc. That fact itself is a pathetic story….’ Adds Dr. Jayaprakash in conclusion: ‘This is what really happened in India, the land of Buddha. But our so-called eminent historians, except a few, are bent upon eclipsing the cruelty done to Buddhists in India. These pseudo historians have succeeded in creating an impression that India is a land of righteousness and toleration. The entire world has been duped by them. The deed on the part of Taliban can be justified on the ground that Islam does not permit idols. But one has to note that Islam does not allow the demolition of other people's religious centres and images. Whatever may be the argument for and against Taliban action, the Hindu atrocities on Buddhism in India has no parallel in the entire world history of religious struggle. Let the world know the cruel and crooked face of the ‘Indian vulture without culture’!


Monday, 8 December 2014

Why BIG brother is a problem rather than solution?

I always wonder WHY BIG BROTHER mostly jealous and hate small brother in this human society. 

Is it because Younger brother is much better to find out their lovers and followers or progress better  or WHAT? 

In fact, this applies in the case of organised religion of  Abrahamic Religions, namely Judaism, Christianity and Islam  which trace their religious ancestry back through "Father" Abraham. 

We all know that Judaism is a elder brother with 0.2% followers, Christianity is middle brother with 33% followers but decreasing in the western world and Islam is the youngest brother with 23% followers and massively increasing across the globe especially in the western world. 

Always Islam has been accused by Zionists who are mostly Judo-Christians (Jewish and Christians) from across the globe especially from USA and EU who has controlled over Mass, Majority, Media, Money, Materials, Men and Mind. =D They have been keep fighting like a MONKEY playing BLAME GAME among each others and killing own brothers born from a same father. WONDER WHY!!!  

Here is the Genealogy of the World's Abrahamic Religions: Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. 

 Abraham had a wife named Sarah who could not get pregnant. She gave Abraham her handmaid,
named Hagar, as a second wife. Hagar had Abraham's firstborn son, Ishmael. Ishmael and Hagar ended up in the wilderness and were miraculously preserved from exposure, dehydration, and starvation. Eventually, Ishmael would father 12 princes as his sons. From one of his sons, Mohammed was born, and with him, Islam or the Muslim religion.

Abraham eventually fathered a child with Sarah resulting in the birth of Isaac. Isaac fathered Jacob and Jacob fathered sons, including Judah. From the lineage of Judah came the Jewish religion and eventually Jesus Christ was born a Jew and began Christianity in all its forms. All three Abrahamic Religions combined account for about 55% or 3,685,000,000 people. Father Abraham was promised by God that his descendants would eventually inherit a piece of land called Canaan which had about the same land mass as New Jersey and is called Israel in present day. 

Christians, Muslims, and Jews have battled and argued over this holy land for centuries and do to
this day. 
"I often tell my students that the prophecy stated that Abrahams descendants would inherit the land, not get along together once they did."
Dr. Ron J. Hammond 

Therefore, it seems that BIG brother is a problem and small brother is a solution in this human society. 

It applies both in Abrahamic religions as well as South Asian originated religions, namely Hinduism which is the oldest religion (BIG BROTHER), Jainism (2nd brother), Buddhism (3r brother) and Sikkhism (last brother) and in the context of South Asian BIG brother is creating more problems to humanity since ancient time when we look deep into the history we can find Genocide of tribes as well as other religion chiefly Buddhism. 

Wonder WHY BIG brother is a problem rather than becoming a solution!!!
Is it because BIG brother is too much DOGMATIC and GREEDY or WHAT!!!

"Introduction to Sociology" published in 2010 by Dr. Ron J. Hammond, Family Studies Program Coordinator and Professor of Sociology, Behavioral Science Department, Utah Valley University, USA

Friday, 28 November 2014

बुढानिलकण्ठ, बुद्ध र यम्बू

यो अतिनै जिज्ञासु मनलाई सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ बुझ्न अतिनै उत्सुकता लाग्छ किन कि यस विश्वका विद्वान बुद्धिजीवी, दार्शनिक, वैज्ञानिक आदिहरुले भनेका रहेछन सत्य भन्दा ठुलो धर्म अरु छैन भनेर | साथै सत्यले मात्र मानवलाई मुक्ति दिलाउछ भनेर | त्यस्तै गरि नेपाल आमाको महान पुत्र, राजकुमार सिद्धार्थ गौतम जो बुद्ध हुनु भयो उहाँले पनि भन्नु भएको रहेछन, 
"सत्यताको मार्गमा लाग्दा जो कोहिले मात्र दुई गल्तिहरु गर्ने गर्छन, प्रथम सत्य के हो बुझ्नको लागि शुरुवात नै नगर्ने, दोस्रो शुरुवात गरेता पनि सत्यताको गहिराईमा नजाने" |

जहिले पनि लाग्थियो किन होला हाम्रा राजा महाराजाहरु बुढानिलकण्ठ गएर विष्णुको मुर्ति हेर्नु हुन्न भन्ने भ्रामिक विश्वास गर्छन र सो मुर्ति हेर्नको लागि हनुमान दोका भित्र सानो दुरुस्त मुर्ति निर्माण गरेको रहेछन उनीहरुको लागि हेर्न र पूजनको भनि जुन सन् २०१२ मा मैले पनि हेर्न अवसर प्राप्त गरे प्रचण्ड नामको एक जना स्थानीय नेवार ७०-७५ वर्षको बुबाले मलाई लागेको हेर्नु पर्छ नानी त्यस्तो जो पायो उसले कहाँ अवसर पाउछ भन्दै |

जे होस कुरा गम्भीर छ, एकदम झालाजेल छ किन कि प्रष्ट रुपमा लेखिएका हाम्रो नेपालको इतिहास छैन | त्यसैले एकदम सोच विचार गर्दै चारैतिर सोच्दै सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ के हो भनि बुझ्नु पर्ने हुन्छ |

सन् २०१२ ताका फिल्ड वर्कको लागि म तथ्यांक संकलन गर्न नेपाल जाँदा मेरो आमा र दिदीले नारायणथान पनि जानु आफ्नो व्यक्तिगत फाईदाको लागि त सेतो नागको छोरी हो भन्छन लामा बाजेहरुले भनेकोले गर्दा म पहिलो पटक गएको थिए बुढानिलकण्ठ, नारायणथानमा दर्शन गर्न |

कस्तो अच्चम लाग्थ्यो मलाई कुरा बुझ्दा बौद्ध दर्शनको तिर्थस्थलहरु कसरी हिन्दुको पनि हुन गयो भनेर | तर कुरा बुझ्दा त प्राय बौद्ध धर्मको तिर्थस्थलहरु हिन्दुस्तान र बुद्धस्थान दुबैमा विगतमा हिन्दुस्तानी दार्शनिक आदि शंकराचार्यले बौद्ध दर्शनको भिक्षुहरुलाई तर्क बाद्विवाद्मा हराउदै कतिको त बध पनि गर्दै हिन्दुको बनाएका रहेछन राजामहाराजाहरुको सहयोगमा सोहि अनुसार केदारनाथ, बद्रीनाथ, पशुपतिनाथ, मुक्तिनाथ, हलेसीनाथ, आदि हिन्दुको मुख्य दर्शन केन्द्रहरु बनाएका रहेछन ९ औ शताब्दीमा र तत्पश्च्यत नेपालमा मल्ल र शाहकालिन राज्यकालिनमा |

कुरा भनेको बुझ्नु पर्छ हामीले, किरातकालिन राज्यको सातौ राजाको पालामा सिद्धार्थ गौतम बुद्ध भए पछि काठमाडौँ उपत्यका आएको थियो भन्ने भनाई छ बौद्ध ग्रन्थहरुमा | अनि "किरात" भनेको राई लिम्बु होइनन त्यो त हिमालयमा र उत्तर-पूर्वी हिन्दुस्तानमा बस्ने मंगोल मुलको तिब्बती-बर्मी जातिलाई खिसी ट्युरी स्वरूप "सिंह" जस्तै प्रवृति भएको "सिंह टाउके मान्छे" भनेर दिएको रहेछ भन्ने भनाई हिन्दुस्तानी लेखहरु जस्तै यजुर्वेदमा सबै भन्दा पहिले उल्लेख गरेको रहेछ तत्पश्च्यत अथर्वेद र महाभारतमा जुन लेखेका थिए वेद व्यासले भन्ने विश्वास छ | वेदिककालमा ती किरातीहरुलाई उच्च स्तरको प्राकृतिक शक्ति भएको मानिसहरु भनेर भन्दा रहेछन |

साथै लिम्बु समुदाय जो आफुलाई किरात हौ भन्ने गर्छन त्यस समुदायको लेखक, छवि संग्बांग्फे लिम्बु लेख्नु हुन्छ,

"यलम्बरका सन्तानहरु काठमाडौँको चार भन्ज्यांग वरिपरी नै बसेका छन् | उनीहरु साँखु खोला तरेर पूर्व आएनन | केहि मिथ्या ईतिहास लेख्नेहरुले पूर्वका लिम्बु खम्बु (राई) लगायत जातिहरुसंग यलम्बरको वंशज मिसाई दिएर दिग्भ्रमित कथा राटन गरि आफ्नो पहिचान धुमिल बनाउने कसरत भई रहेको छ | किरात भन्ने शब्द लिम्बु जातिको मुन्धुम र यससंग सम्बन्धित कुनै लिखित वा अलिखित आख्यान परम्परामा भेटिंदैन जो भूमिपुत्र आदिबासीहरुले आफ्नो मौलिक पहिचान खोज्ने ठुलो शास्त्र भनेको परम्परागत मिथकमा आधारित मन्धुमबाट नै हो | अर्काले लेखि दिएको काल्पनिक ईतिहासलाई आफ्नो उद्गम पृष्ठभुमि मानेर अलमलमा पर्यौ भने हामीसंग जे जति पहिचानहरु छन् त्यो पनि गुमाउने छौ | लिम्बुहरुसंग आफ्नो उत्पति, मानव सभ्यताको विकास र सामाजिक संयोजनका पाटाहरु पश्स्त उल्लेख भएको मुन्धुम र ईतिहास छ | यसका साथै उनिहरुसंग आधुनिक नेपाल राज्य बनेपछाडी पनि आफ्नो शासकीय भूगोल लिम्बुवानमा अविच्छिन्न उत्तराधिकारी रहेर आएको दस्तावेज छ |

त्यस दस्तावेजले लाह्साहांगमा, कासीहांगमा र खाम्वोंग्बा भनेर सम्बोधन गरेको छ | जसको अर्थ ऊतर र दक्षिणबाट प्रवेश गरि त्यही माटोमा उत्पति भएका समुहवीच समायोजन भएको हो भन्ने बुझाउछ | यसकारण लिम्बु जातिलाई न त् मुन्धुम, न त लिखित राजनीतिक दस्तावेज कतैबाट पनि किरात नामले सम्बोधन गरेको पाईंदैन | किरात शब्द वर्णभेदी ब्राह्मणहरुले आफुलाई मन नपर्ने जातिहरुलाई उपहास गर्नका लागि भिराई दिएको उपनाम मात्र हो भन्ने गरिन्छ | किन भने यो शब्दको प्रयोग हिन्दु विधि शास्त्रहरुमा मात्र भएको पाईन्छ | अन्य कुनै पनि जनजातीहरुले पनि आफुलाई किरात हु भनेर स्वीकारेका छैन र जसले स्वीकारेका छन् ती लेखकहरुले यस सम्बन्धि उल्लेख गरेका सन्दर्भ सामाग्रीहरु पनि सबै हिन्दु धर्म ग्रन्थ मात्रै छन् | नेपालको ईतिहास अनुसार किरात राज्य चार भन्ज्यांग भित्र मात्र भेट्न सकिन्छ, त्यसकारण त्यसको खोजीको औचित्य काठमाडौँ उपत्यकाको बाहिरी कुनै अर्थ र महत्व रहदैन | त्यसैले जसले आफुलाई यलम्बरको सन्तान वा वंशज दाबि गर्छन उसले आफ्नो पहिचान खोज्न काठमाडौँ जानु पर्छ | किन भने राज्य र पहिचान जहाँबाट हरायो त्यही खोज्दा मात्र भेट्न सकिन्छ | अरुण पूर्वमा हराएको राज्यको नाम लिम्बुवान हो र दूधकोसी पूर्व हराएको भुमि खम्बुवान हो |"

उपलब्ध प्रमाणहरु अनुसार बुढानिलकण्ठ को त्यो मुर्ति पनि बुद्धकै हुनु पर्छ भन्ने लाग्छ किन कि बुद्ध भनेको सत्यको प्रतिक हुन् अनि सत्यको प्रतिक देखि राजा महाराजा डराउथे आफुले गलित गरेकोले गर्दा झुटको सहारा लिएर सत्ता, शक्ति र जनशक्ति हाता पारेकोले गर्दा | त्यसैले पनि मल्ल कालिनमा राजा जयस्थिति मल्लको पाला, १४ औ शताब्दी देखिनै मात्र पो रहेछन त बुढानिलकण्ठ, नारायणथानलाई महत्व दिएको विष्णु भगवान पुज्ने परम्परालाई पुनर्जीवित गर्ने भन्दै जतिबेला हिन्दुस्तानबाट ५ जना ब्राह्मणहरु झिकाई नेपालको पहिलो का
नून "मानव न्याय शास्त्र" लेखेका थिए जसमा मनुस्मृति र नारायणस्मृति कट र पेष्ट गरिएको थियो साथै ४ जात ३६ वर्ण भन्ने उक्ति पनि सृजना गरेका थिए उपत्यकाबासीलाई स्वरूप दिएर "नेवार" समाजको निर्माण गरेको थियो | १२-१३ औ शताब्दीसम्म त शिव जी मात्र बदी पुज्ने प्रचलन रहेछन कुरा बुझ्दा अनि मल्ल राज्य सुरुवात भएकै १३ औ शताब्दीबाट मात्र रहेछ हिन्दुस्तानमा मुस्लिमहरुले आक्रमण गरे पछि नेपाल आएका रहेछन ज्यान बचाउन |

१७ शताब्दीमा मात्र प्राप्त मल्लले भनेका रहेछन जो कोहि राजाले बुढानिलकण्ठ, नारायणथानमा गई पुज्ने गर्छन उनको मृत्यु पक्का हुन्छ भनेर | त्यस पछि यो परम्परा निरन्तर भएको रहेछन जब गोर्खाको राजा पी.एन. शाहले सन् १७६९ मा मल्ल राज्यलाई हाता पारे | त्यस पछि आजसम्ममा पनि प्रताप मल्लले भनेको काल्पनिक उक्तिलाई सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ हो भनेर कहिल्यै भ्रमण गरेनन शाह वंशीय राजाहरुले त भयो आफै स्वाहा | त्यसैले भनेको हो सत्यको विजय हुन्छ जुन आत्मसात गरेका छन् हिन्दुस्तानको राजनीतिज्ञहरुले त्यसैले उनीहरुको मुख्य राष्ट्र गानको उक्तिनै "सत्यमेव जयते" छ |

अब बुझ्नु पर्ने कुरा के हो भने उपलब्ध प्रमाणहरुको आधारमा तामांगहरु यम्बू बासी हुन् | तामांग भाषमा काठमाडौँलाई यम्बू भन्ने गर्दा रहेछ |

प्रमाण न. १:
काठमाडौँ उपत्यकाको सबै भन्दा पुरानो बासिन्दा भनेकै तामांग हुन् भन्ने कुरा पनि बौद्ध धर्मको चिनिया ध्यानी ज्ञानी मन्जुश्री विद्वानले चोभारको डाडा काटेर काठमाडौँ उपत्यका जहाँ तलाउ थियो अनि सो तलाउको पानी मन्जुश्रीले चोभारको डाडा काटेर बगाएको कहानी जुन स्वयम्भू पूराण लगायत अन्य टिबेटन बौद्ध ग्रन्थहरुमा उल्लेख छन् |

प्रमाण न. २:
साथै जापानिज भूगर्भविद्को खोजमुलुक अध्धयन अनुसन्धानको नतिजा जुन लेख्नु भएको थियो प्रख्यात पत्रकार कनकमणि दिक्षित ज्युले सन् २०१० मा लेखिएको लेख "The lake that was once Kathmandu" शिर्षकमा | स्रोत:

प्रमाण न. ३:
नेपाल र सोभियत संघ (रुस) बीच भएको पुरातात्त्विक अध्ययन कार्यक्रमको सम्झौता अन्तर्गत नेपाल आएका सोभियत संघको पुरातत्वविद डा. अनाटोली यकोव्लेव सातेन्कोले बुदनिकण्ठ जहाँ तामांग जातिहरु अहिले पनि ठुलो संख्या बस्ने गर्छन त्यहाँ उनले उपकरण, हतियार मोङ्गोलियाको ढुङ्गे युग (३०,००० वर्ष पहिले) को जस्तै फेला पारेको थियो भन्ने पुरातात्त्विक प्रमाण छन् |

प्रमाण न. ४:
नेपालको प्रख्यात ईतिहासविद जनक लाल शर्माले आफ्नो पुस्तकमा लेख्नु भएको पहिलेको मंगोल जाति जो आए काठमाडौँ उत्तरबाट उनीहरु आजको तामांग जाति हुन् |
उक्त सत्य, तथ्य र वास्तविकता आधारित प्रमाणहरुबाट सतपर्तिशत उनीहरु तामांग जाति हुन् र बुढानिलकण्ठ, नारायणथानको मुर्ति बुद्धको हो भन्ने कुरा पनि प्रष्ट भयो |

WHY there is NO history of Tamang community in Nepal?

"History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon."
- Napoleon Bonaparte

"History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies."
- Alexis de Tocqueville  (1805-1859),  French political thinker and historian

“History is always written by the winners. When two cultures clash, the loser is obliterated, and the winner writes the history books-books which glorify their own cause and disparage the conquered foe. As Napoleon once said, 'What is history, but a fable agreed upon?”
― Dan Brown, a renowned American author

Ex-Gurkha Army, Mr. Tenzing Limbu enquired me asking question, "WHY there is NO history of  Tamang in Nepal ?"

I also wondered WHY there is NO Tamang history in Nepal written by Nepalese historians and I came to realise from the Civil Code "Muluki Ain"  written in 1854 AD by Prime Minister Janga Bahadur Rana Tamang has been classified under the category of  "Enslavable Alcohol Drinkers" (Masinya Matwali). It is said that it codified social codes in practice for several centuries in Nepal that was rooted in Vyavahāra (traditional Hindu legal procedure), Prāyaścitta (avoidance and removal of sin) and Ācāra (the customary law of different castes and communities).

According to renowned historian of Nepal Mr. Janak Lal Sharma (Himal year 5, number 1) says that the Tamangs are ancient people who are living in the surrounding of Kathmandu valley and its neighboring districts.

Earlier Tamangs were known by various terminologies. Among these, Murmi is a popular term. Hamilton in 1802, Hudson in 1847, and Macdonald in 1989 have used the term Murmi for Tamang people. Some scholars are of the opinion that during the regime of King Tribhuvan the then Prime Minister Bhim Shumsher had formally used the term Tamang for the very first time under the request of Sardar Bahadur Jungabir, who was also from the Tamang nationality. In the 13th century, King Boom Degon (1253–1280), who had ruled the present Mustang region of Nepal, has scriptured the word Tamang in his genealogy. This is the oldest written document ever found about the usage of the word Tamang that exclusively refers to the Tamang nationality of Nepal. There still prevails differences about the origin of the word Tamang.

From Nepal's historical evidences it has proven that Tamang community has been attempted to Genocide by Nepal's past rulers because they were very much aggressive towards Gorkha rulers. As mentioned by Neupane, Govinda in his article  titled "Nepalko Jatiya Prashna (Ethnic Question of Nepal)" published in 2000 that "The Tamangs revolted twice against King Rana Bahadur Shah and King Girvan Bikram Shah in 1873, but they could not succeed."

However, Magar, Gurung, Rai and Limbu had agreement and support to Gorkha's king. Thus they became their troops and later sold to the East India Company as a Gorkha Soldier whereas Tamang were forbidden to join to deprived them socio-economically. Thus kept them as a slave of royal families and palace in the Kathmandu valley exploiting their male's physical strength and women as a sex slave of a royal families. It is just a common sense to understand if you have BRAIN to think in our head, heart to feel and hands to do.

As I said Tamang community was attempted to GENOCIDE here the Genocide Convention adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 defined Genocide and considered Crime of Genocide in international law in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide.

In the Article II: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Article III: The following acts shall be punishable:

(a) Genocide;

(b) Conspiracy to commit genocide;

(c) Direct and public incitement to commit genocide;

(d) Attempt to commit genocide;

(e) Complicity in genocide.

Therefore, to expect writing of history about Tamang by Nepalese rulers is almost impossible because those community which has been attempted to Genocide by rulers how they can think of writing about them.

Anyway, I love reading history to understand the root cause and reason of WHY some people and communities are so much deprived, marginalised, discriminated, dominated, and disadvantaged and others are very much advantages and feel so much proud of being belong to such groups of advantage. Besides, I love studying history because

“If you don't know history, then you don't know anything. You are a leaf that doesn't know it is part of a tree. ”
― Michael Crichton, an American best-selling author, physician, producer, director, and screenwriter

"Study history, study history. In history lies all the secrets of statecraft."
- Winston Churchill

"Those who don't know history are destined to repeat it."
- Edmund Burke (1729-1797), an Irish statesman, political theorist, and philosopher

“Study the past if you would define the future.”
― Confucius

Tuesday, 18 November 2014

I am an energy

I strongly realised that I am an energy in human form. In fact, we all Energy since we are all made of scientific component called atoms. Atoms are the basic building blocks of ordinary matter. Atoms can join together to form molecules, which in turn form most of the objects around you. 

Atoms are composed of particles called protons, electrons and neutrons. Protons carry a positive electrical charge, electrons carry a negative electrical charge and neutrons carry no electrical charge at all. The protons and neutrons cluster together in the central part of the atom, called the nucleus, and the electrons 'orbit' the nucleus. A particular atom will have the same number of protons and electrons and most atoms have at least as many neutrons as protons.

"An energy, or soul, is separate from matter, and that the universe is made of energy – pure energy which was there before man and other material things like the earth came along."
- Socrates
'Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to another.'
Albert Einstein
"We are a way for the universe to know itself. Some part of our being knows this is where we came from. We long to return. And we can, because the cosmos is also within us. We're made of star stuff."
Carl Sagan, an American astronomer, astrophysicist and cosmologist

Religion: A root cause of sexism and genderism

Women are suppressed, disregarded and abused by every religion in the world. They are considered inferior to men by these organizations and are therefore condemned to be a second class type of person. A great many women have no rights at all. As a consequence, the men, especially through their religious faiths, threaten and strictly prohibit the utilization of an unlimited amount of talent and abilities within women. These forms of discrimination occur within all major religions such as Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and others. BUT I hardly find in Buddhism since Buddhism is not a religion. It is the path to spiritualism based on personal practice embracing truth, fact and reality to awaken self from within rather than following blind belief for the sake of humanity and prosperity of every human kind on this earth.

My tribute to a great lady, Hypatia of Alexandria who was murdered by religious mind brutally in 5th century in Greece. I suppose she was the first lady in the world who has been murdered by dogmatic mindset people who was against intellect of women.

I have studied the root cause of sexism and genderism then I realised that the root cause of all fruits such as sexism, genderism, racism and casteism is the religion across the globe but we hardly understand because we lack understanding due to our own ignorance. Therefore, we tend to ignore religion as the root cause of all socio-cultural and political fruits that have been grown our mother earth governed by handful of greedy mindset people who are after POWER POLITICS rather than Human Politics to preserve and sustain humanity on this earth.

Hypatia of Alexandria was literally torn to pieces by a "Christian" mob who loved her so much that they wanted to save her from Hell. Beware of Christians who say they love you. Remember, Hypatia died for your sins.

"Men are above the women, because Allah has given the one part a superiority above the other."
Islam/Koran – Sure 4

"One hundred girls are not worth as much as one boy."
Confucius, an ancient Chinese philosopher

"A woman must never enjoy independence."
- Manusmriti, the law of Hindu

"The women shall be servants to their men who are their masters."
Christian Bible: Paul to the Ephesians in the New Testament

These above quotes clearly demonstrate the value of women based upon a religious viewpoint and one upheld by many men. Still, these discriminatory words against women, though spoken in the past, nevertheless prevail even today. Such attitudes also guarantee the abuse of women as being mere birthing machines without being provided the necessary means with which to fight back for their human rights. In fact, Religions, which are man-made, have all established evil mechanisms to control and exploit women. 

"Religion is regarded by the common people as true, by the wise as false, and by the rulers as useful."

 - Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 BCE-65 AD), a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero

"Religion is the impotence of the human mind to deal with occurrences it cannot understand." 
- Karl Marx

These are the reasons WHY I detest religious mind and urge each and every girl and women who are thinkable and love their intellectual property  should say NO to religious minded people because they are against women's intelligent and love to produce dumb and dull women only to be their slave through their life working as their servant rather than partner.

Monday, 17 November 2014

Sexism and Genderism: Hegemonic masculinity Nepalese society

Nepalese society is one of the most sexism and genderism hegemonic masculinity societies in the world that hates female and favour male. Due to this there are many popular sayings and proverbs related to such societal mindset and practices have been coined that make girls and women feel humiliation and discourage to speak openly which proves how much male dominated and penis rule prevalent in our society. Such proverbs and sayings  focus particularly on those ones portraying a woman/female as inferior, secondary and even dispensable in our hegemonic masculinity society. Most of the Nepalese  proverbs, some subtle and others too direct, help to de-humanize a woman from her birth right till the death; and help to reinforce the idea of her sexual-utility and breeding roles in the society.

Sayings and proverbs reflect our societal mindset, our ideology and our culture and our attitude. Proverbs reflect the family we live in, and the values we transfer to the new generation. Through these proverbs prevailing in the Nepali societies, the article shows how the seed of discrimination and bias against a girl is sowed and nurtured in our culture, values and attitude. And, in our subconscious.

Here are some popular sayings and proverbs related to women and men.

· “If the hen starts crowing, it should be slaughtered and thrown over the hill.” (Women must be submissive. If they speak up, they should be discarded.)

‘Never mind the delay as long as it is a son.’ Alternatively, ‘Birth of a daughter is a doomed fate’.

"Beget a son, and dine on mutton; beget a daughter, get pumpkin."

"A daughter is the nest of shame."

"The daughter is for managing the household; the son is for the world."

"The riches in the fist and the wife within sight."

"A manly man has ten wives."

"If no sons are born, families die."

“Without son, family will be un-balanced”

"Sons are the support of old age”

"To raise and care for a girl is like taking care of someone else’s garden."

“When a girl is born, the earth sinks by a foot, but when a boy is born, it rises on foot to greet him.”

· “If you look after her well – good. If you kill her, you are cursed.” (Reference to bidding the bride farewell after the wedding ceremony. The bride’s mother ties a knot in cloth containing money, nuts, holy thread etc and gives it to the groom with this message.)

· “Even a beggar does not take alms from a barren woman.”

· “If there is a son, you are safe. If it is a daughter, you have dismay.”

· “A daughter from a family of good background will be good… like pure water.” (Equates ‘good’ to being disciplined, respectful, obedient)

· “A husband with two wives goes to the corner and cries.”

· “The in-law who is very weak has eaten soybean so is weaker now. What do we do with her?”
(Refers to the devaluation of daughter-in-law and sister-in-law; their malnourishment in some homes; and the traditional rejection of soybean as a good food)

· “Women don’t have Adam’s apples because they can’t keep secrets.” (Suggests women are chattering gossips and do not have the discretion of men)

· “Women are excluded from the maternal house once married and suffer the battering of their husbands, so what is their status?”

· “If a daughter dies, she goes to a big house.” (No worry, no loss when a girl or woman dies)

· “Daughters of widows are like bulls.” (Without a man around, they must be wild and uncontrollable)

· “Who has sons has property, who owns a cow has the forest.”

· “We should listen to our male elders and go near their fire for heat.” (Men are the source of strength, protection, warmth etc….)

· “A son’s relation is a bone relation. A daughter’s relation is like leaves.” (A son’s relations are lasting and valuable while a daughter’s fall like leaves and become worthless.)

· “An uncle’s property is invested in auntie’s ritual.” (Translates similar to ‘easy come-easy go’ and has underpinnings that relate to the low value put on in-laws and their property)

· “If late, let it be a son.”

· “If a boy is born, cut a goat. If a girl is born, cut a pumpkin.”

· “Where women are respected, God enjoys.” - Manusmriti

“Drum, savage, sudra, animal and women- these are to be beaten” –Indian Poet Tulsi Das

· “In childhood a female must be subject to her father…in youth to her husband…and when her lord is dead to her sons - women must never be independent” - Manusmriti

· “It is not good if women give opinions”

· “The daughter is a thing to give away, for someone else she is kept”

· “What a relief to send her away today, I am light as a feather and free from debt” – Indian Poet Kali Das

“In childhood a female must be subject to her father; in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons. A woman must never be independent. -Manusmirit V, 145

1. Umesh Shrestha's blog
2. Gender Awareness Training Module  Canada Nepal Gender in Organizations Project with the support of the Canadian International Development Agency
3. Manumriti
4. GoN/GoF 2005. GENDER & SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION STUDY: A Comprehensive Assessment on Gender & Caste Based Discrimination in the Hill Districts of Mid and Far Western Development Regions