Friday, 28 November 2014

WHY there is NO history of Tamang community in Nepal?

"History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon."
- Napoleon Bonaparte

"History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies."
- Alexis de Tocqueville  (1805-1859),  French political thinker and historian

“History is always written by the winners. When two cultures clash, the loser is obliterated, and the winner writes the history books-books which glorify their own cause and disparage the conquered foe. As Napoleon once said, 'What is history, but a fable agreed upon?”
― Dan Brown, a renowned American author

Ex-Gurkha Army, Mr. Tenzing Limbu enquired me asking question, "WHY there is NO history of  Tamang in Nepal ?"

I also wondered WHY there is NO Tamang history in Nepal written by Nepalese historians and I came to realise from the Civil Code "Muluki Ain"  written in 1854 AD by Prime Minister Janga Bahadur Rana Tamang has been classified under the category of  "Enslavable Alcohol Drinkers" (Masinya Matwali). It is said that it codified social codes in practice for several centuries in Nepal that was rooted in Vyavahāra (traditional Hindu legal procedure), Prāyaścitta (avoidance and removal of sin) and Ācāra (the customary law of different castes and communities).

According to renowned historian of Nepal Mr. Janak Lal Sharma (Himal year 5, number 1) says that the Tamangs are ancient people who are living in the surrounding of Kathmandu valley and its neighboring districts.

Earlier Tamangs were known by various terminologies. Among these, Murmi is a popular term. Hamilton in 1802, Hudson in 1847, and Macdonald in 1989 have used the term Murmi for Tamang people. Some scholars are of the opinion that during the regime of King Tribhuvan the then Prime Minister Bhim Shumsher had formally used the term Tamang for the very first time under the request of Sardar Bahadur Jungabir, who was also from the Tamang nationality. In the 13th century, King Boom Degon (1253–1280), who had ruled the present Mustang region of Nepal, has scriptured the word Tamang in his genealogy. This is the oldest written document ever found about the usage of the word Tamang that exclusively refers to the Tamang nationality of Nepal. There still prevails differences about the origin of the word Tamang.

From Nepal's historical evidences it has proven that Tamang community has been attempted to Genocide by Nepal's past rulers because they were very much aggressive towards Gorkha rulers. As mentioned by Neupane, Govinda in his article  titled "Nepalko Jatiya Prashna (Ethnic Question of Nepal)" published in 2000 that "The Tamangs revolted twice against King Rana Bahadur Shah and King Girvan Bikram Shah in 1873, but they could not succeed."

However, Magar, Gurung, Rai and Limbu had agreement and support to Gorkha's king. Thus they became their troops and later sold to the East India Company as a Gorkha Soldier whereas Tamang were forbidden to join to deprived them socio-economically. Thus kept them as a slave of royal families and palace in the Kathmandu valley exploiting their male's physical strength and women as a sex slave of a royal families. It is just a common sense to understand if you have BRAIN to think in our head, heart to feel and hands to do.

As I said Tamang community was attempted to GENOCIDE here the Genocide Convention adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 defined Genocide and considered Crime of Genocide in international law in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide.

In the Article II: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Article III: The following acts shall be punishable:

(a) Genocide;

(b) Conspiracy to commit genocide;

(c) Direct and public incitement to commit genocide;

(d) Attempt to commit genocide;

(e) Complicity in genocide.

Therefore, to expect writing of history about Tamang by Nepalese rulers is almost impossible because those community which has been attempted to Genocide by rulers how they can think of writing about them.

Anyway, I love reading history to understand the root cause and reason of WHY some people and communities are so much deprived, marginalised, discriminated, dominated, and disadvantaged and others are very much advantages and feel so much proud of being belong to such groups of advantage. Besides, I love studying history because

“If you don't know history, then you don't know anything. You are a leaf that doesn't know it is part of a tree. ”
― Michael Crichton, an American best-selling author, physician, producer, director, and screenwriter

"Study history, study history. In history lies all the secrets of statecraft."
- Winston Churchill

"Those who don't know history are destined to repeat it."
- Edmund Burke (1729-1797), an Irish statesman, political theorist, and philosopher

“Study the past if you would define the future.”
― Confucius

Tuesday, 18 November 2014

I am an energy

I strongly realised that I am an energy in human form. In fact, we all Energy since we are all made of scientific component called atoms. Atoms are the basic building blocks of ordinary matter. Atoms can join together to form molecules, which in turn form most of the objects around you. 

Atoms are composed of particles called protons, electrons and neutrons. Protons carry a positive electrical charge, electrons carry a negative electrical charge and neutrons carry no electrical charge at all. The protons and neutrons cluster together in the central part of the atom, called the nucleus, and the electrons 'orbit' the nucleus. A particular atom will have the same number of protons and electrons and most atoms have at least as many neutrons as protons.

"An energy, or soul, is separate from matter, and that the universe is made of energy – pure energy which was there before man and other material things like the earth came along."
- Socrates
'Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to another.'
Albert Einstein
"We are a way for the universe to know itself. Some part of our being knows this is where we came from. We long to return. And we can, because the cosmos is also within us. We're made of star stuff."
Carl Sagan, an American astronomer, astrophysicist and cosmologist






Religion: A root cause of sexism and genderism

Women are suppressed, disregarded and abused by every religion in the world. They are considered inferior to men by these organizations and are therefore condemned to be a second class type of person. A great many women have no rights at all. As a consequence, the men, especially through their religious faiths, threaten and strictly prohibit the utilization of an unlimited amount of talent and abilities within women. These forms of discrimination occur within all major religions such as Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and others. BUT I hardly find in Buddhism since Buddhism is not a religion. It is the path to spiritualism based on personal practice embracing truth, fact and reality to awaken self from within rather than following blind belief for the sake of humanity and prosperity of every human kind on this earth.

My tribute to a great lady, Hypatia of Alexandria who was murdered by religious mind brutally in 5th century in Greece. I suppose she was the first lady in the world who has been murdered by dogmatic mindset people who was against intellect of women.


I have studied the root cause of sexism and genderism then I realised that the root cause of all fruits such as sexism, genderism, racism and casteism is the religion across the globe but we hardly understand because we lack understanding due to our own ignorance. Therefore, we tend to ignore religion as the root cause of all socio-cultural and political fruits that have been grown our mother earth governed by handful of greedy mindset people who are after POWER POLITICS rather than Human Politics to preserve and sustain humanity on this earth.

Hypatia of Alexandria was literally torn to pieces by a "Christian" mob who loved her so much that they wanted to save her from Hell. Beware of Christians who say they love you. Remember, Hypatia died for your sins.



"Men are above the women, because Allah has given the one part a superiority above the other."
Islam/Koran – Sure 4


"One hundred girls are not worth as much as one boy."
Confucius, an ancient Chinese philosopher

"A woman must never enjoy independence."
- Manusmriti, the law of Hindu

"The women shall be servants to their men who are their masters."
Christian Bible: Paul to the Ephesians in the New Testament

These above quotes clearly demonstrate the value of women based upon a religious viewpoint and one upheld by many men. Still, these discriminatory words against women, though spoken in the past, nevertheless prevail even today. Such attitudes also guarantee the abuse of women as being mere birthing machines without being provided the necessary means with which to fight back for their human rights. In fact, Religions, which are man-made, have all established evil mechanisms to control and exploit women. 

"Religion is regarded by the common people as true, by the wise as false, and by the rulers as useful."

 - Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 BCE-65 AD), a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero

"Religion is the impotence of the human mind to deal with occurrences it cannot understand." 
- Karl Marx

These are the reasons WHY I detest religious mind and urge each and every girl and women who are thinkable and love their intellectual property  should say NO to religious minded people because they are against women's intelligent and love to produce dumb and dull women only to be their slave through their life working as their servant rather than partner.

Monday, 17 November 2014

Sexism and Genderism: Hegemonic masculinity Nepalese society

Nepalese society is one of the most sexism and genderism hegemonic masculinity societies in the world that hates female and favour male. Due to this there are many popular sayings and proverbs related to such societal mindset and practices have been coined that make girls and women feel humiliation and discourage to speak openly which proves how much male dominated and penis rule prevalent in our society. Such proverbs and sayings  focus particularly on those ones portraying a woman/female as inferior, secondary and even dispensable in our hegemonic masculinity society. Most of the Nepalese  proverbs, some subtle and others too direct, help to de-humanize a woman from her birth right till the death; and help to reinforce the idea of her sexual-utility and breeding roles in the society.

Sayings and proverbs reflect our societal mindset, our ideology and our culture and our attitude. Proverbs reflect the family we live in, and the values we transfer to the new generation. Through these proverbs prevailing in the Nepali societies, the article shows how the seed of discrimination and bias against a girl is sowed and nurtured in our culture, values and attitude. And, in our subconscious.

Here are some popular sayings and proverbs related to women and men.

· “If the hen starts crowing, it should be slaughtered and thrown over the hill.” (Women must be submissive. If they speak up, they should be discarded.)

‘Never mind the delay as long as it is a son.’ Alternatively, ‘Birth of a daughter is a doomed fate’.

"Beget a son, and dine on mutton; beget a daughter, get pumpkin."

"A daughter is the nest of shame."

"The daughter is for managing the household; the son is for the world."

"The riches in the fist and the wife within sight."

"A manly man has ten wives."

"If no sons are born, families die."

“Without son, family will be un-balanced”

"Sons are the support of old age”

"To raise and care for a girl is like taking care of someone else’s garden."

“When a girl is born, the earth sinks by a foot, but when a boy is born, it rises on foot to greet him.”

· “If you look after her well – good. If you kill her, you are cursed.” (Reference to bidding the bride farewell after the wedding ceremony. The bride’s mother ties a knot in cloth containing money, nuts, holy thread etc and gives it to the groom with this message.)

· “Even a beggar does not take alms from a barren woman.”

· “If there is a son, you are safe. If it is a daughter, you have dismay.”

· “A daughter from a family of good background will be good… like pure water.” (Equates ‘good’ to being disciplined, respectful, obedient)

· “A husband with two wives goes to the corner and cries.”

· “The in-law who is very weak has eaten soybean so is weaker now. What do we do with her?”
(Refers to the devaluation of daughter-in-law and sister-in-law; their malnourishment in some homes; and the traditional rejection of soybean as a good food)

· “Women don’t have Adam’s apples because they can’t keep secrets.” (Suggests women are chattering gossips and do not have the discretion of men)

· “Women are excluded from the maternal house once married and suffer the battering of their husbands, so what is their status?”

· “If a daughter dies, she goes to a big house.” (No worry, no loss when a girl or woman dies)

· “Daughters of widows are like bulls.” (Without a man around, they must be wild and uncontrollable)

· “Who has sons has property, who owns a cow has the forest.”

· “We should listen to our male elders and go near their fire for heat.” (Men are the source of strength, protection, warmth etc….)

· “A son’s relation is a bone relation. A daughter’s relation is like leaves.” (A son’s relations are lasting and valuable while a daughter’s fall like leaves and become worthless.)

· “An uncle’s property is invested in auntie’s ritual.” (Translates similar to ‘easy come-easy go’ and has underpinnings that relate to the low value put on in-laws and their property)

· “If late, let it be a son.”

· “If a boy is born, cut a goat. If a girl is born, cut a pumpkin.”

· “Where women are respected, God enjoys.” - Manusmriti

“Drum, savage, sudra, animal and women- these are to be beaten” –Indian Poet Tulsi Das

· “In childhood a female must be subject to her father…in youth to her husband…and when her lord is dead to her sons - women must never be independent” - Manusmriti

· “It is not good if women give opinions”

· “The daughter is a thing to give away, for someone else she is kept”

· “What a relief to send her away today, I am light as a feather and free from debt” – Indian Poet Kali Das

“In childhood a female must be subject to her father; in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons. A woman must never be independent. -Manusmirit V, 145

Source/Courtesy:
1. Umesh Shrestha's blog
2. Gender Awareness Training Module  Canada Nepal Gender in Organizations Project with the support of the Canadian International Development Agency
3. Manumriti
4. GoN/GoF 2005. GENDER & SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION STUDY: A Comprehensive Assessment on Gender & Caste Based Discrimination in the Hill Districts of Mid and Far Western Development Regions

Saturday, 11 October 2014

ब्राह्मणको परिभाषा: बुद्ध र मनु बाबा

नेपालको ईतिहास अनुसार भनिन्छ बिगतमा आन्दोलन गर्दा नेवार, मगर र क्षेत्रीहरु (जंग बहादुर राणाले सन् १८७७ मा लखन थापा मगरलाई र सन्  १९४१ जुद्ध समशेर जंग बहादुर राणाले धर्म भक्त माथेमा, गंगालाल श्रेष्ठ,  दशरथ चन्द, शुक्रराज शास्त्री) लाई मृत्युदण्ड दिएर सामन्ती राणा शासक शोसकहरुले उनीहरुलाई शहिद बनाए | तर समकालीन ब्राह्मण जातका आन्दोलनकारीहरुलाई कुनै त्यस्तो मृत्युदण्ड नदिनुको प्रमुख  कारण उनीहरु अति मनाबाद नीति पाला गर्ने थिए |
 
नेपालको भूमिपुत्र ज्ञानी सिद्धार्थ गौतम बुद्धको ब्राह्मण परिभाषा र हिन्दुस्तानको मनु बाबाको ब्राह्मणको परिभाषामा आकाश पातालको फरक छ किनकि बुद्धको परिभाषा अनुसार ब्राह्मण भनेको कुनै जन्म जाति पाउने "उपनाम" होईन वल्कि आफ्नो कर्मले प्राप्त गर्ने मन, वचन र आचरणको उपल्लो स्तर हो |
तर हिन्दुस्तानको मनुबाबाको  परिभाषा अनुसार ब्राह्मण भनेको जन्मजात प्राप्त गर्ने "उपनाम" भन्ने कुरा प्रमाणित हुन् मनुबाद्को पुस्तक "मनुस्मृति" बाट | त्यसैले पनि मनुस्मृति र बुद्धको ज्ञान सम्बन्धी त्रिपिटकहरु अध्धयन गरि हामी सत्य र असत्य ज्ञान विच फरक छुटाउनु पर्ने हुन्छ मानवताको लागि |

 "कपाल खौराउनु नै ब्राह्मणका लागि प्राणदण्ड हो | तर अरु जातिका लागि भने प्राण अन्त्य गर्नु नै प्राणान्तक दण्ड हो |"
-  मनुस्मृति ८/३७९

"जस्तो सुकै अपराध गरे पनि ब्राह्मणको वध कहिल्यै गर्नु हुँदैन, त्यसैले सम्पूर्ण धन खोसेर शरीरमा चोट नलगाइकन देश निकाला गर्नु पर्छ |"
-  मनुस्मृति ८/३८०

"ब्राह्मणको वध भन्दा ठुलो पाप संसारमा अर्को कुनै छैन, त्यसैले राजाले उसलाई मार्ने कुरो मनले कल्पना पनि गर्नु हुँदैन |
- मनुस्मृति ८/३८१

Wednesday, 8 October 2014

I am a humanist because I am born as a human!!

I am born as a human that is why am humanist.

I can't be a person of any ideological indoctrinated programmed that is why although I was born in Islam nation, Malaysia given my name "Laxmi" by Hindu priest and grown up in Hindu tradition dominated society, Nepal; born in a family that is said to be follower of Buddhism tradition; and strongly motivated and convinced by fellow the Christianity ideology believers to be a Christian since at the age of 12 and at the missionary college while doing my Bachelor still I was able to help myself to remain as a human without being indoctrinated to be identified based on my parental ideological belief.

It is thought provoking to read this article "Why I am not a Christian, Jew, Muslim, Hindu or Buddhist"  by Peter Meyer who was born in a Christianity tradition family background. For detail    
http://www.serendipity.li/eden/why_i_am_not.htm

आफ्नो मन परिवर्तन गर, पुर्खौली परम्परा वा संस्थागत धर्म होइन !

बुद्धको ज्ञानको  शिक्षा मार्ग  अनुसार कसैले पनि आफुले मान्दै आएको परम्परा, संस्कार, संस्कृति र  संस्थागत धर्म परिवर्तन गर्न  पर्दैन भन्ने कुरा प्रष्ट छ यस विश्व मानव समाज जुन कुरा मानव जातिमा तुलनात्मक दिमाग चल्ने सच्चा ब्राह्मण र यहुदी पुत्र लगायत चिनिया, जापानिज, कोरिया आदिले प्रमाणित गरेका छन् |

ब्राह्मण जात पुर्खौली रुपमा वेदिक परम्परा अनुसार आफ्नो सबै पारिवारिक र सामाजिक परम्परा, संस्कार, संस्कृति र नीति नियम पालना गर्दै आएता पनि अध्यधिक मात्रामा बुद्धको दर्शनमा लागेका जात हुन् बिगतमा | साथै आज आएर पनि उनीहरु प्राय जसोले बुद्धको ज्ञानको शिक्षालाई नकार्न सक्दैन | उनीहरुलाई आफुलाई हिन्द-बुद्धिस्ट लेख्दा हुने जसरी यहुदी पुत्र पुत्रीहरु जसले आफ्नो यहुदी परम्परा, संस्कार र संस्कृतिमा खासै आफ्नो मनमा लागेको जिज्ञासाहरुको उतरहरु प्राप्त गर्न आत्मसाथ गरे बुद्धको दर्शनलाई उनीहरुले आफुलाई "जुबु" भन्दा रहेछन  जसको अर्थ हुन्छ जुईस बुद्धिस्ट (1) |

त्यस्तै गरि सत्य ज्ञानको पिसासु  ईसाईबादीहरुले आफुलाई बुद्धिस्ट क्रिस्टेन हु भनि पहिचान गर्दा रहेछन | उदाहरणको लागि Bishop Craig Bergland  जो   The Universal Anglican Church को संस्थापक हुनु हुदा रहेछन (2) |

साथै चिनिया, जापानिज, कोरिया, आदिहरुको पुर्खौली मौलिक स्थानीय धर्महरु भएता पनि कतिपयले आफु बुद्ध मार्गी हु भन्दा रहेछन भने कतिपय म नास्तिक हु भन्दा रहेछन तर मेरो परम्परा चाही बुद्धिस्ट हो भन्दा रहेछन |

विश्वमा बुद्धको ज्ञानको दाबी गर्ने मुसलमानको विद्वानहरु जस्तै डाक्टर जाकिर नाईक  लगायत ईसाईहरुको पादरीहरु रहेछन त्यसैले कुरा बुझ्दा विश्वमा शान्ति भाईचारा ल्याउन सक्ने एक मानव पथदर्शक भनेको बुद्धको ज्ञानको शिक्षा मात्र रहेछन जुन  वैज्ञानिकलाई पनि स्वीकार्य साथै अति धार्मिकबादीहरुलाई पनि | सायद हुन् सक्छ  यो कुरा बुझेर नै डाक्टर अम्बेडकर आफू मर्नु भन्दा केहि महिना पहिले बुद्धको शरणआफ्नो मनोभाव सुम्पिएर प्रस्थान हुनु भयो यस पाताल लोकबाट | साथै उहाँ र नेहरुले कुरा बुझेकै कारणले गर्दा हिन्दुस्तान जस्तै अतिनै विविधता भएको राष्ट्रमा सबै कुरा अशोक राजाको स्वीकार्न निधो गरेका रहेछन आफ्नो राष्ट्र अनन्त सम्म अमन चयन, शान्ति, अहिंसा, धार्मिक  सहिष्णुतारहोस भनेर |

त्यसैले कसैले पनि कुनै धर्म परिवर्तन गरेर शान्ति, मुक्ति, अमन चयन प्राप्त गर्दैन कोहि पनि स्वर्गीय जादैन त्यसरी संस्थागत धर्म परिवर्तन गरेर मात्र आफ्नो मन परिवर्तन गरे हुन्छ सत्यता ज्ञानको पछि लाग्दै नत्र भ्रामिक ज्ञानले क्षणिक मात्र अन्ध दिन्छ र मिल्छ तर कालान्तर आफै पछुताउनु पर्ने हुन्छ |


Reference
1. 5 Reasons Jews Gravitate Toward Buddhism http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ellen-frankel/5-reasons-jews-gravitate-toward-buddhism_b_2520948.html
2. The Buddhist Christian: Why I am a Buddhist Christian http://buddhist-christian.blogspot.com.au/2013/06/why-i-am-buddhist-christian.html

Friday, 3 October 2014

असुर जाति: दशैं मनाउनु र नमनाउनुको प्रमुख कारण

सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ कुरा बुझ्दा दुख लाग्यो हामीले मनाउदै आएको दशैको बारेमा |

म धन्य छु गोरे बहादुर खपांगी ज्यु जसले मेरो बाबाको मनको आँखा उघार्ने भाषण दिएर हामीले आज भन्दा करिब २७-२८ वर्ष पहिले नै दशैँ मनाउने प्रचलन त्यागौ |


त्यसको मुख्य कारण भनेकै प्राचिन हिन्दुस्तानको "असुर" भन्ने आदिबासी जसलाई शुद्र बनाईयो र भन्दा रहेछ शक्ति खोज्ने दैती भनेर उनीहरुको दानी मनकारी दयालु राजा "महिशासुर" लाई आफ्नै समाजकै असुर पुत्री दुर्गालाई परिचालन गरि हत्या गरिएको रहेछ र त्यसको खुशियालीमा पो दशैँ मनाउन थालिएको रहेछ |

हरे कस्तो अन्जानमा हामीले पनि पाप गर्दै आएका रहेछौ विगतको सामन्ती शोसक शासकहरुले लागेको दशैँ चाडपर्व हाम्रो पुर्खाहरुलाई जसले मनाउन ईन्कार गर्थे उनीहरुलाई सजाय हुन्थियो कि हत्याको कि जेल कि नेलको |

जे होस् दिलो होस् छोरा नै होस् भन्ने हाम्रो अति मनुबादी मानसिकताको चाहनाको भनाई बमोजिम भए पनि मेरो बुबाको चेत खुल्यो जसले गर्दा हामीले पापको भागिदारी हुने कु-कर्मबाट बन्चित भयौ निर्दोष जाति र राजाको हत्या गरेको खुशियाली मनाउने गरेकोमा हाम्रै आफ्नो अनभिज्ञता र अज्ञानताको कारणले दानव भन्दै जो एक सच्चा मानव थिए भन्ने कुरा बुझियो |  

गोरे बहादुर खपांगी ज्युले जे जस्तो गर्नु परेता पनि बाध्यताले म चाही उहाको कदर नै गर्छु | किन कि अज्ञानताले गर्दा कतिपय दाई भाईहरुले भन्ने गर्नु हुन्छ कि उहाले राजाको हातको टिका थाप्यो तत्पश्च्यत भनेर | तर उहाको के कस्तो बाध्यता थियो कसले बुझिदिने यो भ्रामिक संसारमा जहाँ मिडिया, शक्ति, भक्ति र अर्थको आडमा धार्मिक राजनीतिक हुन्छ भनेर |

गोरे बहादुर खपांगी ज्युकै पहलमा हो आज हामी सारा नेपाली नागरिकहरुले जबर्जस्ति संस्कृत भाषा अध्धयन गर्नु परेको छैन विधायालामा जुन मैले पनि पढेको थिए पहिले | अनि केहि पनि बुझ्दिन थिए जबर्जस्ति लादिएको भाषा विधालयमा अध्धयन अध्यापन गराउन जुन आजको दिनमा आएर नेपालमा करिब १६०० जनाले मात्र बोल्दा रहेछन |


त्यसै गरि हिन्दुस्तान जहाँ प्रतिपादन भयो संस्कृति भाषा त्यहाँ पनि एकदम नगन्य रुपमा समिति (०.०१%) मानिसहरुले मात्र बोल्दा रहेछन संस्कृत भाषा जुन संरक्षण गर्नु पर्छ भन्ने पक्षधर हु म किन कि भाषा मरेर जानु भनेकै संस्कृति र संस्कार मरेर जानु सरह हो भन्ने गर्दा रहेछन भाषाविदहरु यस विश्व मानव समाजको |

Thursday, 2 October 2014

Neuroscientist perspective towards Buddhism as the Science of Compassion

In 3rd Septemer at the University of Sydney I attended wonderful talk program about Compassion (loving-kindness) meditation titled ":The Monk and the Neuroscientist: a Dialogue on Compassion" and discuss on "Does science now prove that the way to happiness is to practise compassion, as the Dalai Lama states?" Dr. James R. Doty, M.D., a Clinical Professor of neurosurgery at Stanford University and Founder and Director of the Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education, a part of the Stanford Institute of Neuro-Innovation and Translational Neurosciences, entrepreneur, and philanthropist; and Buddhist monk Bhante Mahinda discuss how 21st century science and ancient contemplative practice are learning from each other.
 
Here are some thoughts what Dr. James Doty had said in his discussion during the Sydney ideas talk program which I found fascinating (1).

It is indeed a paradox that so many from what are considered developing countries wish to come to the West, where we have an epidemic of depression, isolation, and loneliness, while the U.S. alone consumes 25 percent of the world's resources. However, it is often these "third-world" cultures that offer some of the most profound wisdom and insights that have been garnered over thousands of years, while our own history spans a few hundred years.

We have been blessed in the West with the persistence of a number of individuals who brought the teachings of mindfulness from the East and a number of scientists who, over the last 30 years, have empirically studied its effects. Many have experienced the profound effects of nonjudgmental reflection and the ability to more fully live in the present moment. By doing so, they have decreased their stress, become more efficient, and hopefully gained insight into attachment and delusion.
Mindfulness can have many benefits -- especially in our modern society, where we are constantly deluged by information and distractions and are living at a pace far beyond what our evolution designed us for. While the mindful path has the amazing ability to result in transformation, this journey is one that is taken alone. It is also one that can be perilous, because without insight and wisdom, it can be in and of itself an isolating, self-absorbing, and narcissistic exercise.
While mindfulness can do many positive things, it alone cannot offer what, at our deepest core, we seek, for that is not an inward journey but an outward journey of transcendence. We seek to be connected to what is outside ourselves and connects us with every other. It is through compassion that this transcendence is possible: the recognition of another's suffering and the desire to alleviate such suffering.

Suffering remains a part of the human experience. Everyone, either in the past, present, or future, has or is going to suffer. Yet many of us, instead of sharing our suffering and being vulnerable, try to present a mask to the outside world and pretend that we have our act together, and that we don't have fears and anxieties. Often this is hidden by false bravado (e.g., displaying one's financial or academic success), by criticizing others, or by the accumulation of objects. These actions do nothing to end our suffering. We feed ourselves with that which offers no sustenance.

When scientists first started studying meditation and compassion, it was with Tibetan monks, using electroencephalography (EEG). The instrument of measurement was an EEG electrode cap worn on the head. The monks laughed when they saw the caps. The scientist at first thought the monks were laughing at the cap because it looked funny, but that was not the case. A monk explained, "Everyone knows that compassion isn't in the head. It's in the heart." Indeed, it is through the heart that we are connected with others.

The work of my collaborators at Stanford University and that of many scientists around the world has now demonstrated that, in great part, the monk was correct. As an example, we now know that one of the greatest causes of sudden cardiac death is due to chronic decreased vagal tone leading to an increase in heart-rate variability. Other research has shown that the secondary effect is elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol, a decrease in immune function, and inflammation.

The vagus nerve arises in the brainstem and innervates many organs in the body, being especially represented in the heart. Through a compassion practice, one can increase one's vagal tone and down-regulate such arousal. By doing so, one becomes calmer, decreasing one's heart rate and increasing one's empathy and social connectedness. Even as little as two weeks of a compassion practice can positively improve biological markers of stress and immune function.

Amazingly, when one studies the effects of compassion on the brain, one sees that those areas of the brain associated with reward (for food, for money, and for sex) dramatically increase in metabolism. An example is a study done by my collaborators William T. Harbaugh, Ulrich Mayr, and Daniel R. Burghart, who demonstrated such an increase in metabolism. Both when receiving money and giving money to charity, the pleasure centers in their brain were activated. The same effect occurred when they had no choice in the gift. Another interesting study by David Buss showed that, in looking for mates, though men value physical attractiveness and women value a stable provider, far beyond any other trait, both sexes value kindness and compassion in a partner. More germane in discussing our modern age is a recently published study demonstrating that when girls are presented with a stressor, they have a significantly stronger release of oxytocin (known as the "cuddle" or "love" hormone because of its association with bonding behavior) when speaking in person or over the phone to their mother rather than when texting her. There is ever-increasing data that show that when we care for others and feel close to them, we improve our own health and even our longevity. We are designed to care and to connect. By helping others we help ourselves.
I submit to you that the suffering or pain that each of us experiences is a manifestation of wounds of the heart. It is our lot that each of us will suffer wounds of the heart. Most of these wounds are superficial and heal quickly, but there are some that are deep and never heal and continue to cause pain throughout our existence on this Earth. It is not that we will not have wounds, as it is our lot, and it is what makes us human. What is important, and what defines our humanity, is what we do when we feel the pain of these wounds. Ultimately, these reactions will determine the fate of our collective humanity.
The chain of causation resulting in war, poverty, global warming, ecological catastrophe, and the myriad afflictions of our species is not an external problem but a problem of the human heart. While science and technology offer immense hope for a variety of conditions, until we focus these extraordinary tools on the afflictions of the heart, our species is doomed.

Many quote Darwin, implying that survival of the fittest means the survival of the strongest and most ruthless. Yet in fact what he really meant, as Robert Sapolsky at Stanford, Dacher Keltner at UC Berkeley, and others have discussed (and there is now every bit of scientific evidence to support it), is that it is survival of the kindest and most cooperative that ensures the survival of a species in the long term -- in particular, the human species.

Unfortunately, technology has evolved far faster than the evolution of our species. Many of us are isolated and feel alone. We know that each of us is suffering, but let me ask you: Have you worked next to someone and knew nothing about them? How many times have you been in pain and felt alone and isolated? That is the failure of science, technology, and our modern society. Science and technology have the potential to profoundly impact the human landscape, taking us either to the deepest, darkest valleys of human suffering or to the highest peaks of human potential. What will stop us from choosing the former is the cultivation of compassion. It is the recognition that our family and our tribe is not just our mother, father, aunt, uncle, sister or brother, and that our home is not just what we can see immediately around us, but that every human is part of one family, and that every part of earth is our home. That is what will result in our transcendence and take us to that far shore, where each of us recognizes that the other is his brother and that, in fact, the world is our home, where there are no barriers that separate us but powerful forces that bind us.

Reference
1. The Science of Compassion by Dr. James R. Doty, MD., Professor of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine; Director, Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education http://www.huffingtonpost.com/james-r-doty-md/compassion_b_1639200.html

बुद्ध हिन्दु कुलमा जन्मेको भन्नु अज्ञानताको पराकाष्ट हो |

मैले सत्य, तथ्य र वास्तविकता बोल्नु नै पर्ने भयो बुद्ध र हिन्दु धर्मको बारेमा |

अज्ञानताले गर्दा सिमित आफ्नो पुर्खा वा आफुले मान्दै आएको धर्म, संस्कृति, संस्कार र परम्पराको बारेमा सुनेको वा ग्रन्थहरुमा पढेको आधारमा मात्र अर्ध सत्य ज्ञान भएपछि हतपत सामाजिक संजाल, मिडियामा मुख बाउनु भन्दा अघि अलिक गम्भीर भई गहिरो अध्धयन अनुसन्धान गर्नु नि हौ आफ्नो स्वघोषित विद्वान बुद्धिजीवी पदीय कायम गर्नु नेपाली समाजमा भ्रामिक ज्ञान फैलाउनु भन्दा पनि |

बुद्ध भनेको के हो ? हिन्दु भनेको के हो ? हिन्दु कहिले देखि, कसले नामकरण दिएर भन्न थालियो वैदिक उर्फ ब्राह्मणबाद धर्मलाई प्राचिन हिन्दुस्तानमा भन्ने पनि जानकारी /ज्ञान नभएका विद्वान बुद्धिजीवीहरु छन् हाम्रो ज्ञान भुमि, शान्ति भुमि अग्रगामी नेपालमा अनि के भन्नु र अरु कुरा यस्ता भ्रामिक ज्ञान प्रचारकलाई जसले दाबी गर्छन “हिन्दू कूलमा जन्मिएका वुद्धले हिन्दु धर्मलाई नै स्वीकार गरेका हुन्थे भने आज बुद्ध धर्म यो दुनियाँमा हुने थिएन ।” भन्दै जुन एक हास्यासपद भ्रामिक ज्ञानको दावी मात्र हो |

हाल हिन्दु भनिने धर्मको सबै भन्दा पुरानो नाम भनेको वेदिक धर्म हो जुन सिद्धार्थ गौतम जन्मनु भन्दा धेरै पहिले देखि मान्दै आएका थिए प्राचिन भारतिय आर्यनहरुले | तर पछि गएर वेदिक धर्मलाई धार्मिक गुरु तथा अनुयायीहरुमा दानवीय प्रवृतिहरु जस्तै लोभ लालच, छलकपट, आडम्वर, घृणा, ईर्ष्या, अहमता, अहङ्कार, घमण्ड, भय, गौरव,आदि हाबी भए पछि आफ्नो पुर्खाको धर्मलाई भ्रष्ट्र पारि वेदिक धर्मको भ्रष्ट रुप वैदिक ब्राह्मणवाद धर्म भन्ने प्रतिपादन गरेछन बुद्धकालीन भन्दा पहिले नै जुन धर्मले निरन्तरता पाएछन् बुद्धकालीनमा साथै बुद्धकालीन पश्च्यात पनि |

अनि जब प्राचिन भारतमा १२ औ शताब्दीमा फारसी/मुसलमानहरु भारत आक्रमण गर्न आएछन उनीहरुले सिन्धु नदि पारि बसोबास गर्ने स्थानीय बासिन्दाहरुलाई भौगोलिक नामकरण हिन्दु भन्ने दिएछ | तत्पश्च्यात वैदिक ब्राह्मणवाद धर्म मान्नेहरुले आफुलाई हिन्दु /हिन्दुस्तानी भनी बोलाउन थालेछन | त्यसैले भन्ने गर्छन हालको हिन्दु/वैदिक ब्राह्मणवाद भन्ने धर्म ब्राह्मणबाद र बौद्ध धर्मको समिश्रणको उपज हो भनेर जुन प्युर वेदिक धर्म होइन |

साथै हिन्दु भन्ने शब्द मौलिक भाषा अनुसार नभएको भन्दै २० शताब्दीमा महात्मा गान्धीहरुले अभियान चलाएछन् हिन्दु धर्म सुधारको लागि अनि त्यति बेला गान्धीले मुलिक नाम खोज्ने क्रममा “सनातन धर्म” भनि नामकरण गरेको रहेछन हिन्दु भनिने धर्मलाई |

त्यसैले आज पनि हिन्दुस्तानको हाई कोर्टले हिन्दु भनेको धर्म होइन यो एक जीवन यापन गर्ने शैली हो भनेर परिभाषित गरेका छन् जुन हिन्दु धर्मको सक्रक्षण गर्ने संस्था “राष्ट्र स्वयं सेवक संघ” का प्रमुख मोहन भागवतले पनि हालसालै पुन भनेका छन् “हिन्दु भनेको धर्म होइन | हिन्दु भनेको हिन्दुस्तानमा बस्ने नागरिकहरुले जीवनयापन गर्ने एक शैली हो जसरी इंग्लैंडमा बस्ने अंग्रेज (ईग्लिश), अमेरिका बस्ने अमेरिकी, जर्मनीमा बस्ने जर्मन, इसराइलमा बस्ने इजरायलि, पाकिस्तानमा बस्ने पाकिस्तानी त्यसै गरि हिन्दुस्तानमा बस्ने हिन्दु वा हिन्दुस्तानी हुन् भनेका छन् |

सन् १९७० मा पंजाबी विश्वविद्यालयको धार्मिक अध्ययन विभागको प्राध्यापक डा. लाल मणि जोशी ज्युले लेख्नु भएको पुस्ताक “ब्राह्मणवाद, बौद्ध धर्म र हिंदू धर्म” मा पनि प्रष्टसंग उल्लेख गर्नु भएको छ उक्त तथ्यहरु अनि भनिएका छन्:
१. बुद्ध एक हिन्दु भएर जन्मेको होइन किन कि वर्तमानको हिन्दु भन्ने धर्म बुद्ध जन्मिदा उत्पति नै भएको थिएन |
२. बुद्धकालिन अघि हिन्दुस्तानको धर्म वेदिक ब्राह्मणबाद थियो | तर वेदिक परमपराको साथ साथै त्यति बेला सन्यासी,तपस्वी (स्रमाना)संस्कृति र धार्मिक वैचारिक सोच र अभ्यासको पनि शुरुवात भएको थियो |
३. बौद्ध धर्मको सोहि स्रमानिक संस्कृतिसंग नजिक सम्बन्ध रहेको छ |

४. हिन्दु धर्म वेदिक ब्राह्मणबाद बौद्ध धर्म लगायत अन्य स्रमानिक धार्मिक अभियान समिश्रण भई उत्पति भएको हो |

साथै हाईवेको डाका रत्नाकर जसलाई वाल्मिकी पनि भन्ने गरिन्छ उनले लेखेको रामायणमा बुद्धलाई नास्तिक चोर भनेर उल्लेख गरिएको छ |

यी यस्ता प्रमाणहरुबाट पनि हामीले बुझ्नु पर्ने हुन्छ कि सिद्धार्थ गौतम कुनै पनि हालतमा हिन्दु धर्म मान्ने वा हिन्दुको पुत्र होइनन र थिएनन् भनेर जुन प्राचिन इण्डियाको सामाजिक, संस्कृतिक, धार्मिक र राजनीतिक ईतिहास र ऐतिहासिक दस्तावेजले पुष्टि गर्छन |

कुरा बुझु पार्ने हाम्रा सबै वैदिक हिन्दु सनातनी हु भन्ने विद्वान बुद्धिजीवी दाई भाईहरुले आफ्नो पुर्खाको धर्म बारेमा राम्रोसंग सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ प्रमाणमा आधारति कुराहरु मात्र लेख्नु नत्र आफुनै फन्टुस होला यो २१ औ शताब्दीको वैज्ञानिक युगमा प्रमाणमा आधारित ज्ञानको मात्र मान्यता हुन्छ न कि भ्रामिक ज्ञानलाई आत्मसाथ गर्दै दाबि गरेको |