Saturday, 30 April 2016

समानताको स्वरूप: राजनीतिक र सामाजिक (Equality: Political and Social)

हवार्ड विश्व विधालयको विश्व प्रसिद्ध विचारक तथा प्रयोगात्मक मनोवैज्ञानिक, स्टिभीन पिंकरको भनाई अनुसार समानता राजनीतिक समानता र सामाजिक समानता दुई फरक समानताहरु हुन्छन् |

उनको भनाई अनुसार "राजनीतिक समानता भनेको राज्यले आफ्नो जनताको लागि संविधानमा सुनिश्चित गरिने अपरिहार्य, अविच्छेद्य र अहस्तान्तरणीय अधिकार जुन जीवन, स्वतन्त्रता र खुशी को खोज/लक्ष्यसंग सम्बन्धित छ |

यस्ता अधिकारहरुको मान्यता दिनु/पहिचान गर्नु भनेको मानिसहरु पृथक वा विविध छन् हरेक आधारमा भन्नेमा विश्वास वा मान्यता राख्दैन |"

उक्त भनाईबाट के प्रष्ट बुझिन्छ भने राज्य /सरकारको आँखामा प्रत्येक नागरिक, जनता र मानव समान हुन् | त्यसैले कुनै विभेद गर्न मिल्दैन सामाजिक रुपमा निर्मित संस्कार, संस्कृति, भाषा, लैंगिक, वर्ण, धर्म, जातजाति र भौगोलिक क्षेत्रमा रहनेबस्ने आधारमा भन्ने प्रष्ट हुन्छ |

सामाजिक समानता भनेको श्रोत र साधनको पहुँच र नियन्त्रणसंग सम्बन्धित अधिकार हुन् जुन राज्य, सरकार, शासक, शोसक वर्गले आफ्नो अज्ञानताको मनोडर त्रासको कारणले गर्दा एकपक्षीय एकाद्त्मक नीति निर्माण गरी लाद्ने गर्छन | जस्तै नेपालको सन्दर्भमा भन्नु पर्दा राणाकालिन राज्य व्यवस्थापन प्रणाली ताका जंग बहादुर राणाको पालामा मुलुकी ऐन नामक नीतिनिर्माण गरेर ऐतिहासिक कालखण्डमा राज्य/सरकारले असमान र अन्यायपूर्ण एकाद्त्मक- एक धर्म/संस्कार/संस्कृति, एक जात/वर्ण, एक भाषा, एक पोशाक नीति निर्माण गरी पक्षपाती रुपमा नेपाल भूगोलको ठुलो संख्यामा रहेका नागरिक, जनता र मानव जातिलाई उच, निचको दर्जामा वर्गीकरण गरी बहिस्कृत, तिरस्कृत र घृणित व्यवहार गर्दै शोषक शासक वर्गले आफ्नो धर्म, संस्कार, संस्कृति, भाषा र भेषभुषा जबरजस्ती लादेर मनुबादी हिन्दुवादी बनाए आम हिमाल र पहाडमा बस्ने जनजातीहरुलाई जसको कारण आज आएर उनीहरुले आफ्नो गुमेको मौलिक सामाजिक पहिचान /समानताको साथै राजनीतिक समानताराज्य पक्षबाट माग्दै आई रहेका छन् मानवताको लागि राज्य पक्षबाट राजनीतिक रुपमा गरिएको अन्याय विरुद्ध |

सोहि अनुसार विगतको पंच्याती राज्य व्यवस्थापन प्रणालीको शासक शोसक र सरकारले तराई भेगमा रहदैबस्दै आएका "हामी मधेसी हौ" भन्ने समुदायहरुलाई धार्मिक र संस्कृति रुपमा विभेद नगरेता पनि उनीहरुलाई भाषिक, भेषभुषा, प्रशासनिक क्षेत्रको साथै प्राकृतिक श्रोत र साधनको पहुँच र नियन्त्रणबाट बन्चित गर्नुको साथै राजनीतिक असमनताको पनि शिकार हुनु पर्यो | त्यसैले आज उनीहरुले पनि आफ्नो गुमेको सामाजिक अधिकार, समानता र पहिचान सहितको न्यायको माग गर्दै आई रहेको छ राज्य पक्षबाट मानवताको लागि |

दलित समुदायको माग पनि सामाजिक न्याय नै हो उनीहरुमा एकदात्मक नीतिको सिकार नभएता पनि उनीहरुलाई सामाजिक र राजनीतिक असमानतामा अतिनै तुक्ष्छ रुपमा लादेर उनीहरुलाई अमानवीय व्यवहार गरियो राज्य पक्षले जसको शिकार आज्सम्म पनि उनीहरु सम्पूर्ण जातजातिको घृणा, तिरक्सर, बहिस्कार, अन्याय अत्यचार सहेर बस्नु परेको छ |

कर्णाली भेगका खसहरुलाई पनि सामाजिक र राजनीतिक समानता हर रुपमा अन्याय गरेको देखिन्छ उनीहरुको आफ्नो मौलिक पहिचान स्वाहा पारेर मुठ्ठी भरका सिमित कुलीन घर्निया हिन्दुस्तानबाट मुस्लिमहरुको डरत्रासले आफ्नो ज्यान बचाउन भागेर आएर सामन्ती शासक शोसक वर्गले राज्यस्तरबाट लादिएको सामाजिक असमानताको कारणले गर्दा आज कर्णाली देशकै अतिनै विपन्न क्षेत्र रहेको छ जुन क्षेत्र एकताका नेपालको भूगोलको गरिमा बोकेको थियो ऐतिहासिक कालखण्डमा |

महिला वर्गलाई पनि राज्य पक्षले गरेको मुख्य अन्याय भनेकै राजनीतिक असमानता हो जसको कारण उनीहरु पनि सामाजिक असमानताको शिकार हुनु पर्यो |

त्यसैले जसले समानता के हो भन्ने बुझेको छैन उनीहरुले मात्र तगारो हाल्छ र ढाल अनि प्रष्ट रुपमा देखिने कुलीन घर्नियाको मुठ्ठी भरको मति भ्रष्ट शासक, शोसक र सरकार/राज्यको भरौटे भई विरोध गर्ने गर्छन सामाजिक र राजनीतिक समानता व्यवहारमा देख्ने चाहने सचेत, सजक, शिक्षित र ससक्त नागरिकहरुको आफ्नै अज्ञानताले गर्दा मानवताको साथ दिनु भन्दा दानावताको साथ, हात दिने गर्छन मुर्ख मनुवाहरु |

Monday, 4 April 2016

Demand for the compensation: Historically Genocide of the half of the Nepal's indigenous communities

The Legal definition of GENOCIDE as defined by the UN that states in Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948) as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part 1; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."

No one can imagine that from the state level any ruler can formed a law and order just to GENOCIDE a certain group of community /society classifying them as an enslavable and impure.

However, this (intended GENOCIDE) has happened in Nepal because of the borrowed law "the law of manu/Manusmriti" from India that was imposed among innocent, ignorant and honest indigenous communities of Nepal as early as 14th century by King Jayasthiti Malla promulgating Nepal first law "Manav Nyaya Shastra" that was further rewrote and endorsed in 19th century during the kingship of Surendra Bikram Shah under the prime minister-ship of Janga Bahadur Rana that is still in place despite the new constitution of Nepal has been promulgated last year in September.

If we look at the history of Nepal critically then no human can sleep peacefully because it boils the cold blood that trigger to do something good and better for our future so that everyone can be equal at the eyes of state law and order.

Lynn Bennett, who worked as the Gender Coordinator for the Asia Region and as Director for Social Development in the South Asia Region at the World Bank and Dilip Parajuli a Senior Economist with the South Asia Education Unit at the World Bank, Washington DC authored report "The Nepal Multidimensional Exclusion Index: Making Smaller Social Groups Visible and Providing a Baseline for tracking results for social inclusion" is ever published the best report that clearly shows HOW the past action of the rulers has shaped the present socio-economic status of those communities /societies that have been systematically socio-economically marginalised, discriminated and excluded by the state law and order for the last 250 years to exercise their rights as a citizen of the nation.

To compensate the lost and damage of those communities/ societies Government of Nepal MUST made reparation to them without any delay like the Australian government did during the Labour Government under the Prime Minister-ship of Kevin Rudd historically apologised to the Stolen Generations and said ‘sorry’ on February 13th, 2008, indigenous Aboriginal people across all Australia were deeply moved and in tears.

Nepal Human Rights Commission should consider this issue to compensate those communities lost and damage in the last 250 years imposing inhuman law and order that intentionally GENOCIDE large section of indigenous communities of Nepal from which they are still struggling demanding equal treatment from the state level in each and every sector of growth and development of the country plan of action.


Monday, 14 March 2016

उद्धेश्य के लिनु, उडी छुनु तारा एक

गहन र गम्भीर विश्लेषण, विवेचना, विचार विमर्श र बहस अन्तरमन मस्तिष्कमा गरेर बुझे कि "उद्धेश्य के लिनु, उडी छुनु चन्द्र एक" भन्ने उक्ति जुन भनेका थिए लक्ष्मी प्रसाद देवकोटाले त्यस्तो सोचेर आफ्नो जीवनको लक्ष्य/ उद्धेश्य राख्न सान्दर्भिक छैन महान सपना देख्ने व्यक्तिहरुको लागि यथार्थमा साकार बनाउन वा परिणत गर्न |

वास्तवमा हुनु पर्ने चाही "उद्धेश्य के लिनु, उडी छुनु तारा एक" हुनु पर्ने हो किन कि सर्वप्रथम आकाशमा लाखौ ताराहरु छन् सो मध्ये एक छुने लक्ष्य राख्नु पर्छ र दोश्रो, ती ताराहरु चन्द्रमा भन्दा लाखौ गुणा टाडा /माथि छ | त्यसैले जब हामी कयौ ताराहरु मध्ये एक तारा छुने लक्ष्य राख्छौ कथनकदाचित एक तारा छुन नसकेता पनि कमसेकम चन्द्र जुन एक मात्र छ सो मा आएर अवतरण हुन्छौ/छुन सक्छौ |

चन्द्र एक मात्र छ अहिलेसम्म हामीले जाने बुझे देखे अनुसार | त्यसैले चन्द्र एक भन्नु आफ्नैमा गलत साबित भयो भन्ने प्रष्ट हुन्छ | साथै जब हामी चन्द्र छुने लक्ष्य राख्छौ तब हामी धर्तिमा अवतरण हुन्छौ किन कि चन्द्र धर्तिभन्दा माथि छ जब कि ताराहरु चन्द्रमा भन्दा पनि कयौ गुणा माथि छ |

त्यसैले एक तह माथि भएको वस्तु छुने लक्ष्य राख्दा दोश्रो तहमा रहेको वस्तु छुन सकिन्छ यदि प्रथम तहको छुन नसकेता पनि | सोहि कारणले गर्दा जहिले पनि लक्ष्य उद्धेश्य भनेको ठुलो आफु र अरुहरु पनि सुन्दै, कल्पना गर्दै भयभित हुने /तर्सिने हुनु पर्छ अनि मात्र प्राप्त गर्न सकिन्छ तन र मनलाई चुनौती दिदै भन्ने गर्छन यस संसारका विज्ञ विद्वान बुद्धिजीवी बौद्धिक वर्गहरु मानवताको लागि आफुले आफ्नैलाई हौसला र चुनौती दिदै अन्य व्यक्तिहरुसंग प्रतिस्पर्धा गर्नु भन्दा आफ्नै अज्ञानताले गर्दा |

कुरा बुझ्नु मुसु मुसु हास्नु मनमा शान्ति लिनु मानवको लागि "उद्धेश्य के लिनु, उडी छुनु तारा एक" भन्ने मन मस्तिष्कमा मनन गर्दै सपना देख्न थाल्नु विशाल जसले तर्साओस स्वयंलाई किन कि जसले त्यस्तो सपना देख्छ उनीहरुले मात्र साकार पार्न पहल गर्छन आफ्नो जीवन र जगतमा | नत्र त आफ्नो अज्ञानतापूर्ण सिमित बुझाईले गर्दा मेरो त सपना कहिल्यै पूर्ण हुन्न भन्यो चित्त बुझायो बस्यो गर्ने गर्छन |

हिन्दुस्तानको वैज्ञानिक राष्ट्रपति, अब्दुल कलामले भन्नु भएको थियो,

"सपना त्यो होईन जुन देख्छौ निदाएको/सुतेको बखत, सपना त्यो हो जसले सुत्न दिदैन |"

त्यसैले तपाई हामीले देख्ने सपना कस्तो थियो र छ गरौ पुनरावलोकन गर्दै मन मस्तिष्कमा गहन र गम्भीर रुपमा विश्लेषण, विवेचना, विचार विमर्श र बहस गर्दै मानवताको लागि आफुले आफ्नैलाई सहयोग गर्न भ्रमबाट मुक्त हुन् | नत्र त मैले देखेको सपना साकार हुन्न भन्यो मस्तसंग फुवास, फुवास सुत्यो अनि कहाँ हुन्छ त साकार ?

हामी नेपालीहरु त्यस्तो सपना देख्छौ जसले गर्दा धर्तिको धर्तिमै रहन बाध्य हुने रहेछौ भन्ने पुष्टि हुन्छ भू.पु. प्रधान मन्त्री डा. बाबुराम भट्टराई ज्युले समेत लक्ष्मी प्रसाद देवकोटाको उक्ति आफुले आत्मसात गरी बजेट भाषण गर्दा भन्नु भएको थियो "उद्धेश्य के लिनु, उडी छुनु चन्द्र एक" भन्दै | लिनु/राख्नु पर्ने लक्ष्य "उद्धेश्य के लिनु, उडी छुनु तारा एक" भन्दै जसले गर्दा चन्द्र छुन सक्षम हुन्थ्यौ |

Friday, 11 March 2016

आस्था र शब्द जालको राजनीतिक

२० औ शताब्दीका विश्व प्रख्यात इटालियन राजनीतिज्ञ, बेनिटो मुसोलिनी जसले तानाशाही व्यवस्था "फासिज्म/फासिस्टवाद" को जन्म दियो उनको भनाई गम्भीर रुपमा विश्लेषण, विवेचना, विचार विमर्श र बहस गरी सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ केलाई बुझ्ने प्रयास गर्ने हो भने हाम्रो देश नेपाल लगायत विभिन्न तानाशाही शासक शोसकहरुले गरेको राज्य संचालन प्रणालीमा स्वयं सम्बन्धित राष्ट्र भित्रै आफ्नो शासक शोसक वर्गहरुले आफ्नै देश/राष्ट्र/समाजका निर्दोष र अज्ञानताको शिकारीहरुलाई नै स्वाहा पारेको देखिन्छ |

हाम्रो देश पनि फासिस्टबाद नीति अनुसार नै संचालित छ भन्ने बुझिन्छ एकात्मकबाद नीति लादिएको देख्दा प्रजान्त्र, लोकतन्त्र र गणतन्त्रको नाममा आम अज्ञानताको शिकार सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ ज्ञानको भिखारीलाई मुर्ख बनाई मामाको घोडीमा मेरो ही हि गर्दै |

हाम्रो देश नेपालमा मानवको भन्दा एक प्रकारको जनावर "गाई, गोरु" जसको विश्वमा सबै भन्दा बदी मासु खाने गर्छन सो को बदी महत्व हुन्छ, त्यसैले जनावर "गाई, गोरु" मासु खाना अहिन्दुबादीहरुले मार्दा १२ वर्ष जेल र नेल ठोक्ने गर्छन हाम्रा शासक शोषक वर्गहरुले देशको नीति कानून हो भन्दै जुन लादेको छ एकतर्फी रुपमा आफ्नै अज्ञानतापूर्ण आस्था र विश्वासले मात्र एक प्रकारको जनावरलाई आमा/बुबा (माता/पिता) देख्दै र अन्य भैसी/बाख्रा जसले पनि दुध दिन्छ र मानिसहरु पनि पिउने गर्छन उनीहरुलाई चाही जनवार नै देख्ने र बलि दिने गर्छन मठमन्दिर र दशैँमा |

खोई के खोई के कस्तो आस्था र विश्वास हो यो मानवहरुको ? कुनै मानिसहरुले सोहि जनावरलाई जनावर नै देखेर मासु खाने (ईसाई, इस्लाम, यहुदी, बोनबादी, अविश्वासी, आदिले) र देवीदेउतालाई टाउको चडाउने (किराँतबादी विशेषत लिम्बु जाति) गर्छन त कुनै मानिसहरुले सोहि जनावरलाई माता/पिता देख्ने गर्छन |

त्यसै गरी कोहि मानिसहरुको आस्था र विश्वासले उनीहरुको भगवान/ईश्वर/परमेश्वर र भूतप्रेत नै भाग्ने रे "सुंगर/बंगुर" र त्यसको मासुले अनि कोहिको चाही देवीदेउतालाई नभई नहुने रे |

विचित्रको छ यो मानव संसार/समाज जुन निर्मित छ काल्पनिक, कपोकल्पित मनगंते भ्रमित आस्था र विश्वासले अनि सोहि अनुसार निर्मित छ व्यक्तिगत र सामाजिक दृष्टिकोण र यथार्थ ! त्यसैले डराउनु पर्ने ती त्यस्ता व्यक्तिहरु जसले जे हो सो देख्दैन सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ/वास्तविकता | तर देख्ने गर्छन उल्टो पल्टो आफ्नो आस्था र विश्वासले जुन लादेका छन् बाल्यकालदेखिनै घरपरिवार, समाज, सरकार, सत्ता, शासक, शोसकहरुले अनि विश्वास गरेका छौ सोहि अनुसार आफ्नै अज्ञानताले गर्दा |

शब्दजाल र विश्वासको राजनीतिक सबै भन्दा अमानवीय कुरता हुँदा रहेछन भन्ने विश्वास इतिहासबाट प्रष्ट हुन्छ | त्यसैले विवेचना, बहस, विचार विमर्श र विश्लेषण गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ वास्तविकमा सत्य र तथ्य के हो समाज, समुदाय र व्यक्तिको समृद्धि र विकासको लागि ज्ञानतापूर्ण राजनीतिक गर्न मानवताको लागि |

Monday, 18 January 2016

Midwives promote Gender Equality empowering women throughout childbirth process

An indicator of gender equality is much more better in Europe compared to else in t he world it could be due to the presence of midwives in their society since midwives empower women in their capability of giving birth that nature has gifted.

It is a hight time for Nepal and Nepalese working to improve gender equality in order to achieve sustainable development goals 3.1 (by 2030 reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births specific maternal health indicator) and 5 (Gender Equality) including overall since without gender equality no society can inspire to work both men and women in achieving sustainable development goals of its nation.

In Nepal there is an evidence that many more pregnant women are suffering from "Obstetric Violence" a new legal term introduced in Venezuela of which an editorial article has been by Dr. Rogelio Pérez D’Gregorio, President of the Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Venezuela in the International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics written in October 6, 2010.

The law defines obstetric violence as “…the appropriation of the body and reproductive processes of women by health personnel, which is expressed as dehumanized treatment, an abuse of medication, and to convert the natural processes into pathological ones, bringing with it loss of autonomy and the ability to decide freely about their bodies and sexuality, negatively impacting the quality of life of women.”

Dr. Pérez D’Gregorio highlights two phrases for consideration, the first of which is “health personnel.” In Venezuela, this includes obstetricians, residents, medical students, nurses and technicians. Midwives are not included because, as Pérez D’Gregorio notes, “midwifery does not exist in obstetric practice in Venezuela, where all deliveries are attended by physicians in an institution.”

In addition, the phrase “the appropriation of the body and reproductive processes of women by health personnel” is, according to Pérez D’Gregorio, “contrary to good obstetric practice, whereby medication should only be used when it is indicated, the natural processes should be respected, and instrumental or surgical procedures should be performed only when the indication follows evidence-based medicine.”

The following acts executed by care providers are considered obstetric violence:

(1) Untimely and ineffective attention of obstetric emergencies;

(2) Forcing the woman to give birth in a supine position, with legs raised, when the necessary means to perform a vertical delivery are available;

(3) Impeding the early attachment of the child with his/her mother without a medical cause thus preventing the early attachment and blocking the possibility of holding, nursing or breast-feeding immediately after birth;

(4) Altering the natural process of low-risk delivery by using acceleration techniques, without obtaining voluntary, expressed and informed consent of the woman;

(5) Performing delivery via caesarean section, when natural childbirth is possible, without obtaining voluntary, expressed, and informed consent from the woman.

In Nepal both in private and public health facilities pregnant women are massively suffering from Obstetric Violence but types of Obstetric Violence varies between public and private. In the private and semi-government sectors high rate of C-section that varies from 40-99% we find and in public sector especially related to health professionals attitude and behaviour we observe and pregnant women and their family members experience. These has to addresses by the concerned professionals and authorities as earliest as possible. Otherwise only designing policies and providing chocolate speeches won't help to address the problems that our pregnant women are facing while giving new life on this planet to sustain humanity.

Tuesday, 15 December 2015

Foreign Aid crippling down Nepal and Nepali

Historically Nepal was prosperous nation in South Asia proves from Nepal's historical facts since Nepal has trade with Tibet and China and there was no open borders for foreign aid to come.

BUT once foreign aid start to come in Nepal in the name of missionaries in 1960s then Nepal economic status started to go down due to increase corruption because of the greed of our rulers and ruling class mindset I suppose since they are the one who handle foreign aids.

I completely agreed with Dambisa Moyo, 44, a Zambian national and has a PhD in economics from the St. Anthony’s College, Oxford University who previously worked as a consultant at Goldman Sachs and as an economist for the World Bank asserted in her famous acclaimed book titled "Dead Aid, Why Aid Is Not Working and How There is Another Way for Africa."

She said that,

“I have dedicated many years to economic study up to the PhD level, to analyze and understand the inherent weaknesses of aid, and why aid policies have consistently failed to deliver on economic growth and poverty alleviation. To this, I add my experience working as a consultant at the World Bank, and being born and raised in Zambia, one of the poorest aid-recipients in the world. This first-hand knowledge and experience has highlighted for me the legacy of failures of aid, and provided me with a unique understanding of not only the failures of the aid system but also of the tools for what could bring African economic success.”

In fact, Dambisa does not criticise emergency and humanitarian aid, she welcomes it. The problem is the government to government, IMF, WB and other non-binding economic growth support which has not worked in the last 50 years. It has successfully made African economies dependent on life support.

I realised that Nepal is in the same position as Moyo stated thus she can't uplift her and her children are becoming poorer and poorer in the region because of too much dependency on foreign aids and international communities are pouring foreign aid on her for not to allow her to work independently because if she works independently then she'll be like other neighbouring nations who get less aid. Therefore, to keep our ruler in slavery mindset pouring foreign aid on her is best way to do.

It is crucial for everyone of us to understand WHY more foreign aid is pouring in Nepal but WHY not in other South Asian countries. What is the hidden interest of western world on Nepal ? That's the BIG Question that we need to pose and find out for the sake of humanity and prosperity of everyone of us!!

Saturday, 5 December 2015

Promote access to Skilled Birth Attendants rather than institutional birth in Nepal

I posted below write up on 5 December as a discussion in the Global Health Nursing and Midwifery (accessed from http://www.ghdonline.org/nursing/discussion/promote-access-of-skilled-birth-attendants-rather-/) in which group moderator, Elizabeth Glaser made her remarks and I addressed her concerns accordingly. 

In the context of Nepal working in remote and rural hill districts after the two recent devastated earthquakes hit Nepal that took around 9000 lives I strongly realised it is paramount to promote access to skilled birth attendants rather than promoting institutional birth that the government of Nepal is doing since last decade with the support of DFID/UKaid and else donor agencies to bring all pregnant women to give birth at a health facility which is not practical and feasible solution especially for those women who are living in rural and remote hill and mountain districts because to get to nearby health facilities it takes minimum 2 to 5 hours walk within their own Village Development Committees. Therefore, it is essential to change and adopt the strategies based on the geo-ecological regions of the nations because strategies that work in plain areas will definitely not work in hill and mountainous regions. Besides, socio-cultural factors also hinder utilisation of the services. 

With the support of UNICEF we, from Midwifery Society of Nepal mobilised 25 nurses to restrengthen and re-stablish birthing services in six most earthquake affected districts namely Sindhupalchok, Nuwakot, Dhading, Rasuwa, Gorkha, and Dolkha and came to understand actual situation that pregnant and labouring women are facing to get to nearby health facilities how much they have to struggle within their family because of socio-economic status related to cultural taboos and transportation barrier although maternity service is free of charge in the health facility. However, in the village where ambulance has access labouring women to take from home to health facility family members have to pay NPR 2000 for one way for half an hour drive which is far more costly than the money that the government pay back (NPR 1000) to labouring women if they give birth at a health facility. Moreover, in many hill and mountainous districts there is no access of transportation so labouring women have to carry in a local stretcher by men. In Nepal due to large number of male migrant workers going abroad it is very difficult to find out men in the villages. Our nurse who had been deployed for 3 months in the epi centre of 25 April 2015 earthquake, Barpark of Gorkha district told us that to refer to complicated deliveries to the higher centre in Kathmandu villagers take loan of around NPR 200,000 to hire helicopter just for one way and it takes family a year or more to repay back the loan that they had taken in emergency situation to save the lives of labouring women and babies. Another our nurse who had been deployed in hiil, Rasuwa district remote Village shared us that during her 3 months stayed there she has assisted only one birth at a health facility and for rest of the births (7) they went to labouring women houses because they couldn't bring her at a health facility. 
Therefore, to reduce maternal and neonatal deaths it is important to promote skilled attendant births rather than promoting institutional births. Nepal neonatal deaths remain stagnant since 2006 to 2011 as demonstrated by the Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011. Similarly, maternal death has not reduced that much despite the government of Nepal is promoting institutional births training less educated human resource, Auxiliary Nurse-Midwives as a skilled birth attendants. According to the Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015 Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division Nepal maternal deaths is 258 per 100,000 which falls among 46 highest maternal deaths nations in the world and 2nd most maternal deaths occurring nation in South Asia after Afghanistan.
What's can be the suggestions and thoughts in improving maternal and neonatal health status in the context of Nepal where main barrier is its geo-ecological regions unlike other countries? I am thinking about Afghanistan model of strategies for producing community midwives training local eligible women/girls as a midwife based on the ICM standard and deployed them in their own village so that they will serve their community.

Elizabeth Glaser Moderator

Replied at 1:26 AM, 5 Dec 2015

Dear Laxmi,
Thank you for your thorough reporting on this matter. 
Could I ask a few questions in order to have a better understanding of the situation? 
From what you reported, a family may have to pay 2000 npr for a one way trip to a facility - which could add up to about 5% or more of a rural family's annual income? 

If a woman were to give birth in a rural village with a skilled birth attendant , how much might it cost her?
Would the skilled birth attendants have supplies to treat maternal hemorrhage or resuscitate an infant?

Elizabeth

 Laxmi TamangReplied at 10:14 PM, 5 Dec 2015

Dear Elizabeth,
Many thanks for your concern about the issues relating to financial status of rural families and SBA. Just to let you know that despite some progress in poverty reduction in recent years, Nepal remains one of the poorest countries in the world, with a Human Development Index of 0.463, placing it 157th out of 187 countries listed in the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report 2013.

Over 30% of Nepalese live on less than US$14 per person, per month, according to the National Living Standards Survey conducted in 2010-2011. While the overall poverty rate for Nepal is 25%, this figure increases to 27% in rural and 42% in the mountainous region with almost equal proportion in hill region, 24%. But it ranges from 16% to 39% from eastern to far-western hill regions. The same survey shows that household having 5 or more members and 2 or more under 6 years children have higher rate of poverty that ranges from 21% to 37% and 41% to 47% respectively. Similarly, households having illiterate household heads and illiterate or below grade 5 women as family members have more poverty rate (34% and 40% respectively) compared to their counterparts. In these remote hill and mountain zones, the terrain is rugged, rainfall is low and the poor-quality soil is difficult to farm. About 80% of Nepal's people live in rural areas and depend on subsistence farming for their livelihoods. Household food insecurity and poor nutrition are major concerns in these areas, where about half of children under five years of age are undernourished. Most rural households have little or no access to primary health care, education, safe drinking water, sanitation or other basic services.

Poor rural people in Nepal generally have large families, very small landholdings or none at all, and high rates of illiteracy. They are also concentrated in specific ethnic, caste and marginalized groups, particularly those of the lowest caste (dalits), indigenous peoples (janajatis) and women. Therefore, from such situation we can imagine how much income they have in a year and have to expenses in health service although maternity service is free, mothers they don't have to pay once they arrive in a health facility. Besides, they also receive transportation cost depending upon in which ecological they live it varies. For instance, NPR 500 for low flat/plain area in which we have 20 districts, NPR 1000 for hill region and NPR 1500 for mountainous region's women if they give birth at a health facility. 

As I said maternity service in government health facilities is free, women they don't have to pay. But my major concern is to force women to come to health facility is not feasible due to rugged terrain access to nearby health facility with their own village takes minimum 2 to 5 hours depending upon their location within the Village. Anyhow government is giving the salary and allowances to an Auxiliary Nurse-Midwife (ANM) so why she just have to wait and see the way hoping that labouring women would come to give birth. In a year they hardly have 40-50 births that I came to know from the government official data and usually there are two ANMs deployed in a birthing centre within a village. ANMs are trained as a skilled birth attendants by the government of Nepal providing them two months additional training as per the National Skilled Birth Attendant Policy 2006. However, follow up evaluation found that they are not that much competent and knowledgeable as compared to Diploma Level Nurse undertaking 3 years nursing course who are called staff nurse. Currently Nepal government has 1478 health facilities functioning at the level of birthing centres in rural areas and skilled birth attendants who are working there equipped with required supplies to treat maternal hemorrhage and resuscitation a newborn. My major concern is instead of providing frequent short-term training to low level human resource investing large amount of money why not trained those existing ANMs or else who are interested to be a qualified Midwife and mobilised them in the community level as done in Afghanistan because Afghanistan has similar geographical challenge as to Nepal. I am telling this based on the national skilled birth attendants policy 2006 in which it has clearly stated in its long term measure professional midwife of bachelor level will be produced to improve maternal and neonatal health in Nepal and we, from Midwifery Association of Nepal has been advocating since its establishment in 2010.

Status of maternal mortality in Nepal and its way out

Although different organisations produced different figures relating to reduction of maternal deaths in Nepal however I was quite aware and sure that maternal mortality in Nepal has not reduced that much as it supposed to reduce since 1990 to date, 2015 due to absence of skilled competent, compassionate, caring, communicative counsellor and courageous human resource to serve women in rural areas where majority, 87% people live in Nepal. Unless and until Nepal will not have such human resource in rural setting as envisioned by the government of Nepal in the National Skilled Birth Attendants Policy 2006's long term measures in producing professional midwives maternal and neonatal deaths won't reduce to bring sustainable development in the country promoting women's and newborn's health.

According to the Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015 Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division Nepal maternal deaths is 258 per 100,000 which falls among 46 highest maternal deaths nations in the world and 2nd most maternal deaths occurring nation in South Asia after Afghanistan. I can't imagine that after Afghanistan Nepal is the 2nd most maternal deaths occurring nations. I can't believe at all how much our mindset is corrupt still in this 21st we are allowing our pregnant and labouring mothers to die despite we consider ourselves that we have achieve and succeed in improving maternal and newborn healths and also got awarded by some donor agencies. What a shame!!!

Now it is high time government of Nepal and all donor agencies working in maternal and newborn health needs to think critically to invest in maternal health for sustainable development producing human resource that is critical for the society to provide quality cost-effective respective maternity care that are affordable, accessible, available and accountable learning lesson from Sri Lanka, Pakistan and else nations in the regions.

Reference
1. WHO 2015 Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015 Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division Nepal accessed from http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/monitoring/maternal-mortality-2015/en/

Friday, 21 August 2015

हामी हरुवाहरुको सम्झना: कृष्ण भट्टचन

अंग्रेजलाई  विश्व  जिताउने सहयोग  गर्ने साथै हिन्दुस्तानबाट आएको  शाहवंशीय शोसक शासकहरुलाई  हालको नेपाल भुमि एकीकरण  गराउन सफल  वीर बहादुर गोर्खा सैनिकहरु  रे | 

 तर  आफ्नै  देशमा  हरुवा र दास बन्न  सफल  साथै  जीवन भर हिन्दुस्तान  र  अंग्रेजको लागि  बलि दिने वीर  बहादुर गोर्खा सैनिकहरुको  समुदाय र  सन्तानहरुको  बारेमा  आहा कति  तितो सत्य, तथ्य  र  यथार्थमा  आधारित कविता हो यो  डा. भट्टचनको  जुन   साभार गरेको  रहेछन ‘हामी हरुवाहरुको सम्झना’ शिर्षकमा पुष ५, २०६२ को दृश्य नेपाल वर्ष १ अंक २ बाट |


भन्छन्, ‘जित्नेको इतिहास हुन्छ
हार्नेको सम्झनामात्र बाँकी रहन्छ’
हामी, कहलिएको ‘भुसतिघ्रे’,
‘भोटे’, ‘लाहुरे’,
‘तिघ्रे र पर्वते स्वाँठे’,
‘जङ्गल फाँडेर खनीखोस्री खाने’,
‘अयोग्य, मतुवाली र पाखण्डी, नीच, निर्दयी’
हरुवाहरुलाई
धेरै गहिरो चोट र व्यथाहरुका सम्झनाहरुमात्र
बाँकी छ

हामीलाई सम्झना छ,
हाम्रो आस्था र श्रद्धाको
च्योमोलुङ्मा,
फेदाङवा, यावा, सावा र युमा,
सुम्निमा र पारुहाङ,
पे, पच्यु, घ्याब्रे र पेतालुता,
बाठौ र गुरुवा,
बोम्बो र साङदुङ्ग,
आजु र अजिमा,
ट्होम र लम च्हयोम ट्हुङ्ब,
ल्ह ल्हाङ्वा न्हुर्बु, ल्ह घाङ्लासिङ्गी कर्पो,
ल्ह छयुरीन ग्याल्मो र ल्ह ह्यावा ¥हाङ्ज्युङको
आशिर्वादले
हामीले, पहिले
सबैभन्दा पहिले
यही धर्तीको यही ठाउँमै विजय पाएका थियौं

ठाउँ र समयसँग
जमिनसँग
बन जङ्गलसँग
खोलानाला र पानीसँग
खानीसँग
हावासँग
आकाशसँग
जनावरसँग
कीट पतिंगरसँग
चराचुरुङ्गीसँग
हामीलाई झल्झल्ती सम्झना छ,
हामीले उहिले, उहिले जुन ठाउँमा जितेका
थियौं
हामी हिजो र आज त्यही ठाउँमै हा¥र्यौ ।
हामीले हा¥र्यौ, ‘त्योसँग’
‘त्यो’ ‘बा हुन, वा होइनन्’

जसको उहिले उहिले बाउको ठेगान थिएन हो, हामीले ‘त्योसँग’ नै हा¥र्यौ ।
हामीले निम्ता बाँडेकै दिन हा¥र्यौ
हामीले दौडेकै दिन हा¥र्यौ
हामीले अठार धार्नी नाक कान जोखेकै दिन हा¥र्यौ
हामीले भोज खाएकै दिन हा¥र्यौ
हामीले तामा छोएकै दिन हा¥र्यौ
हामीले रक्सीसँग कानुनी बिहा गरेकै दिन हा¥र्यौ
हामीले छाती नापेकै दिन हा¥र्यौ
हामीले रगतको पञ्जा छाप लगाएकै दिन हा¥र्यौ
हामीले नुन खाएको दिन हा¥र्यौ
हामीले टीका लगाएकै दिन हा¥र्यौ
हामीसँग सम्झनाको क्याराभान छ,
त्यसले हामीलाई च्याम्पतिलाई जस्तै कति
घुमायो कति,
त्यसैले हामी हा¥र्यौ
त्यसले हामीलाई माछालाई जस्तै कति जाल
ग¥यो कति,
त्यसैले हामी हा¥र्यौ
त्यसले हामीलाई निर्दोष भेडाबाख्राहरुलाई
जस्तै कोखाबाट निकालेको छुराले कति हान्यो
कति,
त्यसैले हामी हा¥र्यौ
त्यसको प्रत्येक घुमाइमा हामी फनफनी घुम्यौ,
त्यसैले हामी हा¥र्यौ
त्यसको प्रत्येक जालमा हामी सर्लक्कै पा¥र्यौ,
त्यसैले हामी हा¥र्यौ
त्यसको हनाइमा हामी अचानो भयौं,
त्यसैले हामी हा¥र्यौ

हामीलाई सम्झना छ,
हामी मुलाको जरा भएर बस्यौ, मुला

तल, झन तल, ओरालो लाग्नथाल्यौं
अँध्यारै झन् अँध्यारो प्यारो मान्न थाल्यौ
जति धेरै सुन्निन सकियो, उति राम्रो मान्न थाल्यौ
जहाँको तही सड्दाको गन्ध सुगन्धित मान्न थाल्यौ

पहिचान ओरालो÷अँध्यारो–सुगन्धित
मातृभाषा ओरालो÷अँध्यारो–सुगन्धित
धर्म ओरालो÷अँध्यारो–सुगन्धित
संस्कृति ओरालो÷अँध्यारो–सुगन्धित
हक अधिकार ओरालो÷अँध्यारो–सुगन्धित
हामीलाई ताजा सम्झना छ,
त्यो हामीकहाँ आउँदा उखुको टुप्पा भएर आयो
जहाँ जसले जसरी लगेर सारे पनि हर्लक्कै सरेर आयो,
त्यो पानीढलोमा दुबो भएर हलक्कै सप्य्रो
त्यो पूर्वमा ‘चारदामे’ फर्सीको बोट भएर फैलियो
त्यो चारकोसे झाडीमा सखुवा भएर अग्लियो
त्यो हिमालको टुप्पामा पनि भर्खरै हिउँ भएर चुलीन थालेको छ
त्यो जहाँ जहाँ सप्रन खोज्यो
त्यहीं त्यहीं सप्य्रो, खुबै सप्य्रो
आगोले ढडाए झनै हरियो भरियो भएर आयो,
सधै माथि, झन् झन् माथि माथि
ताक्दै चंगाजस्तै अकासियो,
उज्यालो, झन् उज्यालोमात्र खोज्दै आयो
गुलियो, फरक फरक गुलियो हुदै आयो

शाही गुलियो,
जहानियाँ गुलियो,
बिर्ता गुलियो,
जागिर गुलियो,
फर्सी गुलियो
निर्दल गुलियो
बहुदल गुलियो
एकसय सत्ताइस गुलियो
सोच गुलियो
नीति गुलियो
व्यवहार गुलियो
हामीलाई सम्झना छ,
त्यो हामीकहाँ कसरी आयो
हो, हामीलाई राम्रै सम्झना छ,
त्यो गंगाको फाँटबाट भाग्दै
पहाड उक्लदै आयो
त्यो तीनचोटि फुक्दै आयो
पहिलोपटक त्यसले ढुंग्रो फुक्यो,
खरानी उड्नेगरी फुक्यो
दोस्रोपटक त्यसले शंख फुक्यो
सातोपुत्लो उड्नेगरी फुक्यो,
तेस्रोपटक त्यसले कान फुक्यो
कानको जाली फाट्नेगरी फुक्यो
हिजोआज त्यसले माइक फुक्यो,
स्वरै सुक्नेगरी फुक्यो
त्यसको प्रत्येक ढुंग्रो फुकाईमा
हाम्रा आस्थाका बन–जङ्गल–जमिन खरानी भएर उड्यो
त्यसको प्रत्येक शंख फुकाइमा
हाम्रा अधिकारहरुलाई वाजले चल्ला उठाए जस्तै उठाएर लग्यो
त्यसको प्रत्येक कान फुकाइले
हाम्रा आमाका मिठा धुनहरु सुन्न छाड्यौं
त्यसको प्रत्येक माइक फुकाइमा
हाम्रा सामुहिक अस्मिता कालो नीलो भयो,

हामीलाई सम्झना छ
त्यसले जेली खेल खेलेर
पञ्जा, छक्का र सत्ताको सिक्वेन्स देखाएर
हामीले बाजी नथापीकनै
च्याँखे पनि नथापिकनै
थाहा पायौं,
हाम्रो जमिन स्वाहा भएको
थाहा पायौं,
हाम्रा चरण हरण भएको
थाहा पायौं
हाम्रा जङ्गल मरुभुमि भएको
थाहा पायौं,
हाम्रा रोजी रोटी घुमेको
थाहा पायौं,
हाम्रो जिब्रो काटिएको
थाहा पायौं,
हाम्रा शिर उडेको
थाहा पायौं,
हाम्रा सृष्टि–जीवन ध्वस्त भएको
थाहा पायौं,
हाम्रा बचे–खुचेको हामी भित्रको हामी–भावना पनि खरानी भएको
हामीले धेरै हा¥र्यौ, यति धेरै हा¥र्यौ कि
अब हामीसँग हार्न बाँकी कुनै चिजै रहेन
अब त हामीहरुसँग हार्ने भन्दा पनि
जित्ने दाउमात्रै बाँकी छ !
वाजी मार्ने सम्भावनामात्रै बाँकी छ !!
मार्रा भन्ने विकल्पमात्रै बाँकी छ !!!

आत्मनिर्णयको अधिकार मार्रा !
सङ्घीय संरचना मार्रा !
जातीय, भाषिक र क्षेत्रगत स्वायत्तता र उप–स्वायत्तता मार्रा !
समानुपानिक प्रतिनिधित्व मार्रा !
विशेष व्यवस्था मार्रा !
धर्मनिरपेक्षता मार्रा !
भाषिक समान अधिकार मार्रा !
समान महिला अधिकार मार्रा !
सामुहिक अधिकार मार्रा !
हामीलाई थाहा छ
अब हामी सम्झना तन्द्रामै ध्यानमग्न भएर सम्भावना देख्न थालेका छौं, गज्जबको सम्झना ।

बाहुनवादलाई आर्यघाटमा सेलाएको सम्भावना
सत्तरंगि इन्द्रेणी भएर उदयको सम्भावना
झेली खेको नियमनै फेरेको सम्भावना
५९ खोलाहरु मिलेर असार र साउनको कोशी र कर्णाली नदी बनेर उर्लेको सम्भावना
आफै, आफ्नै बलबुताले फेरी हाम्रो इतिहास रचेको सम्भावना
नयाँ शिराबाट इतिहास रचेको सम्भावना
जीवनी भन्दा इतिहास भएर जिएको सम्भावना
यी सबै सबै सम्भावना यर्थाथ भएको सम्भावना ||

स्रोत सामाग्री 
हामी हरुवाहरुको सम्झना लेखक डा कृष्ण भट्टचन https://sociologynepal.wordpress.com/2015/08/21/hami-haruwaharuko-samjhana/#more-404

Friday, 24 July 2015

Impact of cow as a national animal of Nepal: Past and Present

In Nepal's Preliminary Draft Constitution 2015 it is stated that Cow will be the national animal of Nepal like it was stated in our old Constitution.

BUT how It can be possible that COW to be an national animal in the country where historically Tamang, Sherpa, Limbu, Sarki etc eat cow meat "beef" as per their tradition and culture that was banned by Rana Regime because Rana rulers considered cow as their MOTHER as per their belief system but for Tamang, Sherpa, Limbu, Sarki cow is an animal like others such as goat, buffalo, pig, etc.

For an animal that is eaten worldwide by more than 85% people to be considered national animal is BLIND in MIND thoughts and ideas. If our law makers are wise they would propose One Horn Rhino as a national animal which is an endanger animal in the process of extinction.

Abuse Of Religious Freedom: Loss Of Identity: Dr. Govinda Bahadur Tumbahang [1]

The statement of great King Prithivi Narayan Shah that Nepal was a Hindustan (the place of the Hindus) in the real sense is criticised especially by the Janajatis whose traditional religion is Kirant, which has distinctive characteristics. The rulers after him prohibited cow slaughter as the Hindus consider her as a "mother" and worship her on her day.
Janajatis like the Limbus, on the other hand, have a tradition of offering a cow's head to a goddess in order to please her. Therefore, the ban on cow slaughter would prevent them from performing their religious rituals. They were bound to lie to the goddess by promising her a cow's head and offering her instead a goat's head. Even now the tradition of lying to the goddess has not stopped. All Janajatis were compelled to observe the Hindu festival Dashain. Two Athpahariyas, namely Lalima and Ritima, who did not obey the order to observe it were hanged to death.
Junga Bahadur Rana, the then prime minister, introduced a Civil Code to strengthen and consolidate Hinduism. The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 2019 and the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 2047 continued this trend. In the beginning several schools and finally Nepal Sanskrit University were established to spread Hinduism at the expense of public taxes. As the state encouraged Hindu religion and discouraged others, they have been marginalised. These are the grievances that the Jananatis have against the state.

1. Abuse Of Religious Freedom: Loss Of Identity: Dr. Govinda Bahadur Tumbahang http://trn.gorkhapatraonline.com/index.php/op-ed/3132-abuse-of-religious-freedom-loss-of-identity-dr-govinda-bahadur-tumbahang.html